Abnormalities of the Menstrual Cycle (Menstrual Disorder)
Because menustration is ongoing process throughout half of a woman’s life, it affects her self-image significantly. An irregularity such as a painful cycle can exert a major influence on daily activities and should never be taken carelessly; it is a health concern requiring as much time and attention as that given to other concerns.
Definition- Dysmenorrhea is painful menustration. Currently it is recognized that the pain is due to the release of prostaglandins (primarily PF2) in response to tissue destruction, during the ischemic phase of the menustral cycle. PF2 causes smooth muscle contraction in the uterus.
Dysmenorrhea is primary if it occurs in the absence of organic disease; it is secondary if it occurs as a result of organic disease.
Theraputic management: - Generally controlled by acommon analgesic such as acetylsalicylic acid (asprin) and ibuprofen.
Definition-Menorrhagia is an abnormally heavy and prolonged menustral flow.Usually accompanied by clots. It may occur in girls close to puberty and in woman nearing menopause because of unovulatory cycles.
Symptom: - It is difficult to determine when a flow isabnormally heavy. If a pad or tampon is saturated in less than an hour it indicates a heavy flow.
Refere the woman for further investigation
Definition - Metrorrhagia is bleeding between menstrualperiods. It is normal in some adolescents who have spotting at the time of ovulation (“mittelstaining”).
· May also occur in women on hormonal contraceptives (break through bleeding) for the 1st 3 or 4 months.
· Vaginal irritation from infection might lead to mid-cycle spotting.
If metrorrhagia occurs for more than one menustral cycle and the client is not on hormonal contraceptives, she should be referred to physician for examination, because vaginal bleeding is also an early sign of uterine carcinoma or ovarian cysts.
Definition-The absence of menstrual flow for at least three cycles in a woman having a regular cycle of menustration. It could be primery or secondary.
Primary amenorrhea is the absence of menustration for a girlor woman who has reached the age of menustration (who never menustruated)
Secondary amenorrhea is the absence of menustration for aperiod for a woman who has menustrated preveiously. It mayresult from tension, anxiety (stress), fatigue, chronic illness, sudden wait gain or loss or strenuous exercise.
In the reproductive age group pregnancy should be always ruled out.
Oligomenorrhea- Infrequent menustation and is usuallydefined as occurring when the duration of the cycle exceeds that of normal for the individual.
Polymonorrhea – Excessive bleeding and the length of thecycle is reduced.