Computer Graphics and Architecture - Important Short Questions and Answers: Animations & Realism

1. Define Fractal

A fractal
is an image or a geometric object with self-similar properties produced by
recursive or iterative algorithmic means .

2.List
out some properties of fractal. Self similar

Formation by iteration

Fractional
dimension

Form is extremely irregular or fragmented

3.What
are three types of self-similarity found in fractals? Exactly self-similar

Quasi-self-similarity

Statistically self-similar

4.Give
some examples of fractals. Clouds

Grass

Fore

Modeling
mountains(terrain) Coastline

Branches
of a tree Surface of a sponge Cracks in the pavement 5.What is Koch Curve?

The Koch
curve is a curve that is generated by a simple geometric procedure which can be
iterated an infinite number of times by dividing a straight line segment into
three equal parts and substituting the intermediate part with two segment of
the same length.

6.Give
the general procedure to construct Koch curve. To form Kn+1 from Kn:

Subdivide each segment of Kn into
three equal parts and

replace the middle part with a bump in
the shape of an equivalent triangle.

Total length of Ki is (4/3)^{I}
which increases as i increases.

7.What is known as L-Systems?

L-systems(also
known as Lindenmayer Systems or parallel string-rewrite systems) is a simple
approach to generate a large number of complex curves by refining the line
segments based on a simple set of rules.

8. What are the instructions to be
followed in L-systems?

An
L-system works by giving the turtle a string sequence where each symbol in the
sequence gives turtle instructions.

‘F’ go forward 1 step

‘+’ turn right by x degrees

‘-‘ turn
left by x degrees

Where x is set and predetermined.

9. What is String Production Rules?

String
Production Rules is a rule used to generate a simple String in to the longer
one that will generate richer curve.

10.What is Iterated Function
System(IFS)?

Iterated
function systems or IFSs are a method of constructing fractals in which each
string is repeatedly fed back into the same function to produce the next higher
order object; the resulting constructions are always self-similar.

11.Give the rules for Dragon Curves?

The rules that used X and Y for dragon
curves F F

X
X+YF+

Y -FX-Y Atom=FX

F means “draw forward”

- means “turn left 90^{0}”,
and

+ means “turn right 90^{0}”.

12.Give
the parameter to represent each curves based on String production The five key
ingredients for each curve

Atom

F-string

X-string

Y-string

Angle in degree

13.What is space-filling curve?

A space-filling curves in the 2D plane
are commonly called Peano curves.

14.What is called Ray Tracing?

Ray
tracing, also called as ray casting, is a technique for generating an image by
tracing the path of light through pixels in an image plane and simulating the
effects of its encounters with virtual objects.

15.What is the state of a turtle?

A turtle
has a position and points in some direction, so its state consists of the
values of the current position (CP) and current direction (CD)

State of
the turtle={CP,CD}

16.What is the functionality of hit()
methods?

The hit() methods performs the following
functions

The ray
is first transformed into the generic coordinates of the object The various
intersections with the generic object are computed 17.What is known as Surface
texture?

Surface
texture, also known as surface finish, is the characteristics of a surface in
which computer-generated imaged=s is made more lively and realistic by painting
textures on various surfaces.

18.What is total internal reflection?

The
internal reflection is an optical phenomenon that happens when a ray of light
strikes a medium boundary at an angle larger than a particular critical angle
with respect to the normal to the surface

19.What is Constructive solid
geometry?

Constructive
solid geometry (CSG) is a technique used in solid modeling. Constructive solid
geometry allows a modeler to create a complex surface or object by using
Boolean operators to combine objects.

20.What is CSG Objects?

CSG
objects (also called as compound or Boolean objects) is an object is
constructed by combining the primitives by means of allowable operations, which
are typically Boolean operation on sets,

Union

Intersection

Difference

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