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Important Short Questions and Answers: Animations & Realism

Computer Graphics and Architecture - Important Short Questions and Answers: Animations & Realism


1. Define Fractal


A fractal is an image or a geometric object with self-similar properties produced by recursive or iterative algorithmic means .


2.List out some properties of fractal. Self similar


Formation by iteration


Fractional dimension

Form is extremely irregular or fragmented


3.What are three types of self-similarity found in fractals? Exactly self-similar




Statistically self-similar


4.Give some examples of fractals. Clouds




Modeling mountains(terrain) Coastline


Branches of a tree Surface of a sponge Cracks in the pavement 5.What is Koch Curve?


The Koch curve is a curve that is generated by a simple geometric procedure which can be iterated an infinite number of times by dividing a straight line segment into three equal parts and substituting the intermediate part with two segment of the same length.


6.Give the general procedure to construct Koch curve. To form Kn+1 from Kn:

Subdivide each segment of Kn into three equal parts and

replace the middle part with a bump in the shape of an equivalent triangle.


Total length of Ki is (4/3)I which increases as i increases.


7.What is known as L-Systems?


L-systems(also known as Lindenmayer Systems or parallel string-rewrite systems) is a simple approach to generate a large number of complex curves by refining the line segments based on a simple set of rules.


8. What are the instructions to be followed in L-systems?


An L-system works by giving the turtle a string sequence where each symbol in the sequence gives turtle instructions.


‘F’ go forward 1 step


‘+’ turn right by x degrees


‘-‘ turn left by x degrees

Where x is set and predetermined.


9. What is String Production Rules?


String Production Rules is a rule used to generate a simple String in to the longer one that will generate richer curve.


10.What is Iterated Function System(IFS)?


Iterated function systems or IFSs are a method of constructing fractals in which each string is repeatedly fed back into the same function to produce the next higher order object; the resulting constructions are always self-similar.


11.Give the rules for Dragon Curves?

The rules that used X and Y for dragon curves F F


X       X+YF+


Y -FX-Y Atom=FX


F means “draw forward”


- means “turn left 900”, and


+ means “turn right 900”.


12.Give the parameter to represent each curves based on String production The five key ingredients for each curve






Angle in degree


13.What is space-filling curve?

A space-filling curves in the 2D plane are commonly called Peano curves.


14.What is called Ray Tracing?


Ray tracing, also called as ray casting, is a technique for generating an image by tracing the path of light through pixels in an image plane and simulating the effects of its encounters with virtual objects.


15.What is the state of a turtle?


A turtle has a position and points in some direction, so its state consists of the values of the current position (CP) and current direction (CD)


State of the turtle={CP,CD}

16.What is the functionality of hit() methods?

The hit() methods performs the following functions


The ray is first transformed into the generic coordinates of the object The various intersections with the generic object are computed 17.What is known as Surface texture?


Surface texture, also known as surface finish, is the characteristics of a surface in which computer-generated imaged=s is made more lively and realistic by painting textures on various surfaces.


18.What is total internal reflection?


The internal reflection is an optical phenomenon that happens when a ray of light strikes a medium boundary at an angle larger than a particular critical angle with respect to the normal to the surface


19.What is Constructive solid geometry?


Constructive solid geometry (CSG) is a technique used in solid modeling. Constructive solid geometry allows a modeler to create a complex surface or object by using Boolean operators to combine objects.


20.What is CSG Objects?


CSG objects (also called as compound or Boolean objects) is an object is constructed by combining the primitives by means of allowable operations, which are typically Boolean operation on sets,








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