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# Heating Effect of Current

For continuous drawing of current, the source has to continuously spend its energy. A part of the energy from the source can be converted into useful work and the rest will be converted into heat energy. Thus, the passage of electric current through a wire, results in the production of heat. This phenomenon is called heating effect of current. This heating effect of current is used in devices like electric heater, electric iron, etc.

HEATING EFFECT OF CURRENT

Have you ever touched the motor casing of a fan, which has been used for a few hours continuously? What do you observe? The motor casing is warm. This is due to the heating effect of current. The same can be observed by touching a bulb, which was used for a long duration. Generally, a source of electrical energy can develop a potential difference across a resistor, which is connected to that source. This potential difference constitutes a current through the resistor. For continuous drawing of current, the source has to continuously spend its energy. A part of the energy from the source can be converted into useful work and the rest will be converted into heat energy. Thus, the passage of electric current through a wire, results in the production of heat. This phenomenon is called heating effect of current. This heating effect of current is used in devices like electric heater, electric iron, etc.

## 1. JouleŌĆÖs Law of Heating

Let ŌĆśIŌĆÖ be the current flowing through a resistor of resistance ŌĆśRŌĆÖ, and ŌĆśVŌĆÖ be the potential difference across the resistor. The charge flowing through the circuit for a time interval ŌĆśtŌĆÖ is ŌĆśQŌĆÖ.

The work done in moving the charge Q across the ends of the resistor with a potential difference of V is VQ. This energy spent by the source gets dissipated in the resistor as heat. Thus, the heat produced in the resistor is:  H = W = VQ

You know that the relation between the charge and current is Q = I t. Using this, you get

H = V I t     (4.19)

From OhmŌĆÖs Law, V = I R. Hence, you have

H = I2 R t (4.20)

This is known as JouleŌĆÖs law of heating.

JouleŌĆÖs law of heating states that the heat produced in any resistor is:

┬Ę                 directly proportional to the square of the current passing through the resistor.

┬Ę                 directly proportional to the resistance of the resistor.

┬Ę                 directly proportional to the time for which the current is passing through the resistor.

## 2. Applications of Heating Effect

### 1. Electric Heating Device:

The heating effect of electric current is used in many home appliances such as electric iron, electric toaster, electric oven, electric heater, geyser, etc. In these appliances Nichrome, which is an alloy of Nickel and Chromium is used as the heating element. Why? Because:

(i) it has high resistivity, (ii) it has a high melting point, (iii) it is not easily oxidized.

### 2. Fuse Wire:

The fuse wire is connected in series, in an electric circuit. When a large current passes through the circuit, the fuse wire melts due to JouleŌĆÖs heating effect and hence the circuit gets disconnected. Therefore, the circuit and the electric appliances are saved from any damage. The fuse wire is made up of a material whose melting point is relatively low.

### 3. Filament in bulbs:

In electric bulbs, a small wire is used, known as filament. The filament is made up of a material whose melting point is very high. When current passes through this wire, heat is produced in the filament. When the filament is heated, it glows and gives out light. Tungsten is the commonly used material to make the filament in bulbs.

### Solved Problem

An electric heater of resistance 5 Ōä” is connected to an electric source. If a current of 6 A flows through the heater, then find the amount of heat produced in 5 minutes.

### Solution:

Given resistance R = 5 Ōä”, Current I = 6 A, Time t = 5 minutes = 5 ├Ś 60 s = 300 s

Amount of heat produced, H = I2Rt, H = 62 ├Ś 5 ├Ś 300. Hence, H = 54000 J

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10th Science : Chapter 4 : Electricity : Heating Effect of Current |