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Definition and SI unit - Electric Current | 10th Science : Chapter 4 : Electricity

Chapter: 10th Science : Chapter 4 : Electricity

Electric Current

The motion of electric charges (electrons) through a conductor (e.g., copper wire) will constitute an electric current. This is similar to the flow of water through a channel or flow of air from a region of high pressure to a region of low pressure.

ELECTRIC CURRENT

The motion of electric charges (electrons) through a conductor (e.g., copper wire) will constitute an electric current. This is similar to the flow of water through a channel or flow of air from a region of high pressure to a region of low pressure.

In a similar manner, the electric current passes from the positive terminal (higher electric potential) of a battery to the negative terminal (lower electric potential) through a wire as shown in the Figure 4.1.


 

1. Definitionofelectric current

Electric current is often termed as ‘current’ and it is represented by the symbol ‘I’. It is defined as the rate of flow of charges in a conductor . This means that the electric current represents the amount of charges flowing in any cross section of a conductor (say a metal wire) in unit time. If a net charge ‘Q’ passes through any cross section of a conductor in time ‘t’, then the current flowing through the conductor is

time ‘t’, then the current fl owing through the conductor is

I = Q/t 


 

2. SIunitofelectriccurrent

The SI unit of electric current is ampere (A). The current flowing through a conductor is said to be one ampere, when a charge of one coulomb flows across any cross-section of a conductor, in one second. Hence,


 

Solved Problem-1

A charge of 12 coulomb flows through a bulb in 5 second. What is the current through the bulb?

Solution:

Charge Q = 12 C, Time t = 5 s. Th erefore, current I = Q/t = 12/5 = 2.4 A



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10th Science : Chapter 4 : Electricity : Electric Current | Definition and SI unit


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