The electric potential at a point is defined as the amount of work done in moving a unit positive charge from infinity to that point against the electric force.

**ELECTRIC POTENTIAL AND
POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE**

You are now familiar
with the water current and air current. You also know that there must be a
difference in temperature between two points in a solid for the heat to flow in
it. Similarly, a difference in electric potential is needed for the flow of
electric charges in a conductor. In the conductor, the charges will flow from a
point in it, which is at a higher electric potential to a point, which is at a
lower electric potential.

The electric potential
at a point is defined as the amount of work done in moving a unit positive
charge from infinity to that point against the electric force.

The electric potential
difference between two points is defined as the amount of work done in moving a
unit positive charge from one point to another point against the electric
force.

Suppose, you have moved
a charge Q from a point A to another point B. Let â€˜Wâ€™ be the work done to move
the charge from A to B. Then, the potential difference between the points A and
B is given by the following expression:

Potential difference is
also equal to the difference in the electric potential of these two points. If
V_{A} and V _{B} represent the electric potential at the points
A and B respectively, then, the potential difference between the points A and B
is given by:

V = V_{A} â€“ V_{B}
(if V_{A} is more than V_{B})

V = V_{B} â€“ V_{A} (if V_{B} is more than V_{A})

The SI unit of electric
potential or potential difference is volt (V).

The potential difference
between two points is one volt, if one joule of work is done in moving one
coulomb of charge from one point to another against the electric force.

1volt = 1 Joule / 1
coulomb

The work done in moving
a charge of 10 C across two points in a circuit is 100 J. What is the potential
difference between the points?

Charge, Q = 10 C Work
Done, W = 100 J

Potential Difference V =
W/Q = . 100/10

Therefore, V = 10 volt

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10th Science : Chapter 4 : Electricity : Electric Potential and Potential Difference |

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