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# Electric Potential and Potential Difference

The electric potential at a point is defined as the amount of work done in moving a unit positive charge from infinity to that point against the electric force.

ELECTRIC POTENTIAL AND POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE

You are now familiar with the water current and air current. You also know that there must be a difference in temperature between two points in a solid for the heat to flow in it. Similarly, a difference in electric potential is needed for the flow of electric charges in a conductor. In the conductor, the charges will flow from a point in it, which is at a higher electric potential to a point, which is at a lower electric potential.

## 1. Electric Potential

The electric potential at a point is defined as the amount of work done in moving a unit positive charge from infinity to that point against the electric force.

## 2. Electric Potential Difference

The electric potential difference between two points is defined as the amount of work done in moving a unit positive charge from one point to another point against the electric force. Suppose, you have moved a charge Q from a point A to another point B. Let ŌĆśWŌĆÖ be the work done to move the charge from A to B. Then, the potential difference between the points A and B is given by the following expression: Potential difference is also equal to the difference in the electric potential of these two points. If VA and V B represent the electric potential at the points A and B respectively, then, the potential difference between the points A and B is given by:

V = VA ŌĆō VB (if VA is more than VB)

V = VB ŌĆō VA (if VB is more than VA)

## 3. Volt

The SI unit of electric potential or potential difference is volt (V).

The potential difference between two points is one volt, if one joule of work is done in moving one coulomb of charge from one point to another against the electric force.

1volt = 1 Joule / 1 coulomb ### Solved Problem

The work done in moving a charge of 10 C across two points in a circuit is 100 J. What is the potential difference between the points?

### Solution:

Charge, Q = 10 C Work Done, W = 100 J

Potential Difference V = W/Q = . 100/10

Therefore, V = 10 volt

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10th Science : Chapter 4 : Electricity : Electric Potential and Potential Difference |