v Constitution: It is a body of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which
a state or other organization is acknowledged to be governed.
v Judiciary: It is the system of
courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
v Fundamental Rights: They are a group of rights that have been recognized by the Supreme Court as
requiring a high degree of protection from government encroachment. These
rights are specifically identified in the Constitution.
v Trial: It is a formal meeting
in a law court, at which a judge and jury listen to evidence and decide
whether a person is guilty of a crime.
v Trial by Jury: It is a lawful proceeding in which a jury makes a
decision or findings of fact. It is distinguished from a bench trial in which a
judge or panel of judges makes all decisions.
v Judicial Review: It is a process under which executive or legislative actions are subject to review by
v Judicial Restraint: It is a theory of judicial interpretation that encourages judges to limit the
exercise of their own power.
v Judicial Activism: It is a philosophy of judicial decision making whereby judges allow their person
views about public policy, among other factors, to guide their decisions.
v Public Interest Litigation: It is the litigation for the protection of the public interest. It is
litigation introduced in a court of law, not by the aggrieved party but by the
court itself or by any other private party.
v Original Jurisdiction: It is a court’s authority to hear a case for the first time.
v Appellate Jurisdiction: It is the power of an appellate court to review, amend and overrule decisions of a trial
court or other lower tribunal.
v Advisory Jurisdiction: It is when a lower court or any Constitutional body seeks the advice of the
Supreme Court in a matter of law.
v Administrative Courts: It is a type of court specializing in administrative law, particularly disputes
concerning the exercise of public power.
v Public Law: It is that part of law which governs relationships between individuals and the
government, and those relationships between individuals which are of direct
concern to society.