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Glossary - Indian Judiciary
v Constitution: It is a body of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is acknowledged to be governed.
v Judiciary: It is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
v Fundamental Rights: They are a group of rights that have been recognized by the Supreme Court as requiring a high degree of protection from government encroachment. These rights are specifically identified in the Constitution.
v Trial: It is a formal meeting in a law court, at which a judge and jury listen to evidence and decide whether a person is guilty of a crime.
v Trial by Jury: It is a lawful proceeding in which a jury makes a decision or findings of fact. It is distinguished from a bench trial in which a judge or panel of judges makes all decisions.
v Judicial Review: It is a process under which executive or legislative actions are subject to review by the judiciary.
v Judicial Restraint: It is a theory of judicial interpretation that encourages judges to limit the exercise of their own power.
v Judicial Activism: It is a philosophy of judicial decision making whereby judges allow their person views about public policy, among other factors, to guide their decisions.
v Public Interest Litigation: It is the litigation for the protection of the public interest. It is litigation introduced in a court of law, not by the aggrieved party but by the court itself or by any other private party.
v Original Jurisdiction: It is a court’s authority to hear a case for the first time.
v Appellate Jurisdiction: It is the power of an appellate court to review, amend and overrule decisions of a trial court or other lower tribunal.
v Advisory Jurisdiction: It is when a lower court or any Constitutional body seeks the advice of the Supreme Court in a matter of law.
v Administrative Courts: It is a type of court specializing in administrative law, particularly disputes concerning the exercise of public power.
v Public Law: It is that part of law which governs relationships between individuals and the government, and those relationships between individuals which are of direct concern to society.
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