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of Nutrients - Fortification and Enrichment | 11th Home Science : Chapter 3 : Food Science

Chapter: 11th Home Science : Chapter 3 : Food Science

Fortification and Enrichment

Fortification is adding nutrients to the food even though the nutrient is already present in food.


Fortification is adding nutrients to the food even though the nutrient is already present in food. Fortification is done to improve the nutritive value whereas the process of improving the nutrient levels of nutrients which might be lost during processing in foods by special methods is called Enrichment.


Importance of Enhancing Nutritive Value of Food

To meet the nutritional requirements of the body.


·        To make proper selection and prepara-tion of foods.


·        To consume food in a balanced manner.


·        To improve the flavour and texture of the food.


·        To get variety in food.


·        To assist in planning the daily menu, keeping in view the nutrient content of the food.


·        To prevent deficiency diseases in the body.


·        To develop good food habits.


Methods of Enrichment of Nutrients


There are three methods by which one can enhance or increase the nutrients present in food.


·        Combination


·        Fermentation


·        Germination


i) Combination


Combination is the process of combining cheaper and commonly available foods from different food groups to improve the quality of nutrients.

Combining of foods from different food groups is the easiest way of eating all nutrients.

Combination of foods improves the quality of nutrients. Cereals lack certain essential amino acids and these are pres-ent in dhals. On the other hand dhals lack some other essential amino acids that are present in cereals. The quality of proteins becomes as good as that of milk. The com-bination of a variety of foods ensures bet-ter availability of nutrients.


Combination helps to


·        Eat a diet that has good quality nutrients.


·        Use cheaper and easily available foods that enhance the nutrient content of food considerably.


·        Provide balanced diet to the family.


ii) Fermentation


Fermentation is a process in which some micro-organisms are added to the food. They change nutrients already present in the foods into simpler and better forms and also make other new nutrients.


Fermentation makes the dough rise and become almost double in quantity. During fermentation the microorganisms use up some of the nutrients present in the dough and change them into other better quality nutrients. They also make some new nutrients.

Curd, bread, dhokla and idli are all examples of fermented foods.


Advantages of fermentation


·        Fermentation improves the digest-ibility of foods. The microorgan-isms which cause fermentation break the proteins and carbohy-drates into smaller parts, which are easier to digest.


·        During fermentation of cereals and foods like peas, beans etc. the minerals, calcium, phosphorus, and iron are changed into better quality ones. These are then easily absorbed by the body.


·        Fermented foods become spongy and soft and are liked by children and adults.


iii) Germination


Germination is a process in which small shoots come out of the dhal or cereal when these are kept with small amount of water. The grains and pulses to be sprouted need to be soaked in just enough water so that all of it is absorbed. If the extra water in which they are soaked is thrown away, a lot of nutrients are lost.


Grains like wheat, bajra, jawar, etc. can also be sprouted. These grains can then be dried in shade and roasted lightly on a tawa. 

They can be ground and used in many dishes. Pulses are also sprouted first and then steamed and consumed. The time and water which each grain or pulse needs for soaking and sprout-ing is different. Normally 8–16 hours are needed for soaking and 12–24 hours for sprouting. The cloth in which the soaked dhal is tied should be kept moist all the time.


Germination helps


i) Increase the digestibility of food


·        Some carbohydrates and proteins are broken down into smaller and easily digestible forms.


·        Grains and pulses become soft after sprouting, so they take less time for cooking and are easy for you to digest.


ii) Increase the nutritive value of food with no additional cost


Some vitamins and minerals become more when foods are germinated Vitamin B becomes almost double in quantity while vitamin C increases almost 10 times.




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