Substances, when taken into the body in fairly large quantities, can be dangerous to health or can cause death, are called poisons.
Types of poisons: Swallowed poisons
Acids, alkaline, disinfectant, tablets for sleeping, tranquilizers and pain killing drugs. Alcoholic drink taken in large quantities
Fumes and gases from explosions and fires cause choking, difficulty in breathing and death.
Poisons get into the body through injections
First Aid in poisoning
Poisoning is a serious matter
Patient must be removed to a hospital or a doctor
Preserve packets or bottles, which you suspect contained
If the victim is unconscious
Do not induce vomiting
Make the causality lie on his back or on a hard flat bed without any pillow and turn the head to one side.
If breathing is very slow or stopped, start artificial respiration and keep it up, till the doctor comes/ respiration gets restored.
If the victim is conscious
Aid vomiting by tickling the back of the throat
Make him drink tepid water mixed with two tablespoons of common salt for a tumbler of water
If it is a corrosive poison do not induce vomiting
Signs of corrosive poisons
Lips, mouth, and skin show grey , white or yellow patches.
The poison must be diluted by giving large quantities of cold water. This will dilute the irritant and delay absorption.
Milk, egg beaten are given for the above purpose
Foreign bodies Eye
Foreign bodies such as insects and pieces of grit often enter the eye and may be quite difficult to discover. They produce feeling of discomfort and grittiness, which is accompanied by redness, congestion and watering.
These symptoms and signs are similar to those caused by disease. Therefore after a careful search, if the nurse fails to discover a foreign body she must at once refer the patient to a doctor.
If it is an insect , fill the ear with glycerine or cocanut, or mustard oil or warm salt water.
The insect will float up and can be removed easily.
If there is nothing floating up, leave it alone. Do not meddle.
Never pour the water and irrigate the ear since this may cause damage to the ear drum. For blockage due to hardened blocks take to him to the doctor.
Children often insert foreign bodies such as buttons, pencil and beads into the nose.
The child herself calls attention.
Unless it is obviously easy to remove the foreign body, the nurse should not try to remove.
The child should be warned not to inhale through her nose because this provokes the danger of drawing the foreign body further upwards.
Advice mouth breathing until removing the foreign body. Refer the child to the doctor.
Some small objects like safety pin, irregular objects , fish bone or prawn get lodged or obstruct the throat. The nurse should refer the victim to the doctor
Smooth object like buttons, coins, nuts, safety pin etc are swallowed. The nurse should refer the patient to the doctor.