Factors determining the amount of depreciation
There are different factors that determine the amount of depreciation to be provided on a fixed asset. They are as follows:
Actual cost means the amount incurred in acquiring or constructing the asset. It is the acquisition or construction cost or historical cost. It includes all the expenses incurred on the asset to bring the asset to present condition and location, that is, all incidental expenses incurred till it is put into use. Purchase price of the asset, freight, loading charges, unloading charges, erection cost, setting up cost and expenses of trial run are included in the cost of the asset. If the asset is a second-hand one, the initial repair to make the asset useable is also to be taken as part of actual cost of the asset.
The period for which an asset can be used in the enterprise is known as estimated useful life of an asset. It can be calculated in terms of period for which the asset is expected to be used by the entity or units of output to be obtained by the use of the asset. etc. In the case of intellectual properties like patents and copyrights, their legal life is taken as their estimated useful life. The Indian Companies Act, 2013 has prescribed useful lives of fixed assets for the purpose of computation of depreciation. For example, the useful lives prescribed in Part C of Section 123 for general plant and machinery and general furniture and fittings are 15 years and 10 years respectively.
The amount which is expected to be realised at the end of the estimated useful life of an asset is known as scrap value of the asset. It is also known as residual value. In determining the scrap value, costs to be incurred for removal and sale of the asset should be deducted from the estimated gross realisable value.
(iv) Other factors
Besides the above mentioned factors, legal provisions, technological factors, etc., also determine the amount of depreciation.