· Beneficence: acting in a way that benefits the patient
· Paternalism: Substituting the doctor‟s judgement for that of the patient. The patient‟s autonomy is over-ridden. If the patient is not autonomous there is no paternalism. Can be justified or unjustified
· Non-maleficence: minimising harm. Harms should be outweighed by benefits
· Justice: fairness – all members of society share in its benefits and burdens
· Autonomy: ability to make one‟s own decisions. Exercising autonomy requires intellectual and emotional competence and the opportunity for action
· Dignity: preserving self respect, treating as a means not an end
· Truthfulness: central or absolute?
· Futility: endeavours that are doomed to failure. Depends on what the goal is