DUTY OF WATER
For proper planning of a canal system, the d the locality under consideration. Duty is defined as the area irrigated by a unit discharge of water flowing continuously for the duration of the base period of a crop. The base period of a crop is the
time duration between the first watering at the time of sowing and the last watering before harvesting the crop. Obviously, the base period of a crop is smaller than the crop period. Duty is measured in hectares/m3/s. The duty of a canal depends on the crop, type of soil, irrigation and cultivation methods, climatic factors, and the channel conditions.
By comparing the duty of a system with that of another system or by comparing it with the corresponding figures of the past on the system, one can have an idea about the performance of the system. Larger areas can be irrigated if the duty of the irrigation system is proved. Duty can be improved by the following measures:
· The channel should not be in sandy soil and be as near the area to be irrigated as possible so that the seepage losses are minimum. Wherever justified, the channel may be lined.
· The channels should run with fully supply discharge as per the scheduled program so that farmers can draw the required amount of water in shorter duration and avoid the tendency of unnecessary over irrigation.
· Proper maintenance of water courses and outlet pipes will also reduce losses, and thereby improve the duty.
· Volumetric assessment of water makes the farmer to use water economically. This is, however, more feasible in well irrigation.
Well irrigation has higher duty than canal irrigation due to the fact that water is used economically according to the needs. Open wells do not supply a fixed discharge and, hence average area irrigated from an open well is termed its duty.
Between the head of the main canal and the outlet in the distributary, there are losses evaporation and percolation. As such, duty is different at different points of the canal. The duty at the head of a canal system is less than that at an outlet or in the tail end of the canal. Duty is usually calculated for the head discharge of the canal. Duty calculated basis of outlet discharge is
Called ‘outlet discharge factor’ or simply ‘out