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V. Answer the following briefly
1. Attempt an account of slavery in Rome.
Slavery in Rome
• Prisoners of war were enslaved in Rome and thus produced a new labour force for the rich to exploit. Big landholders bought slaves cheaply and used them to cultivate their estates.
• By the 1st century B.C. the total strength of free population was 3.25 million; the slave population was 2 million. Salve labour led to the impoverishment of free labour and their children ended up in the slave markets.
2. Highlight the main contribution of Constantine.
• The refusal of the Christians to pay respect to the Emperor's image was viewed as political treason. Christians were persecuted and thrown to the lions, but the Roman Empire did not succeed in suppressing Christianity.
• One of the Roman emperors Constantine himself became a Christian and Christianity became the official religion of the Empire.
3. What do you know of the Carthaginian leader Hannibal?
• The three wars fought between the two powers, rome of Italy and carthage of North Africa, are called ’Punic Wars’. The General of Carthage Hannibal defeated the Roman army and made a great part of Italy a desert.
• In the second Punic war, Fabius who led the Romans confronted Hannibal and defeated him in the battle of Zama. Pursued by the Roman army, Hannibal ended his life by poisoning himself. In the third war Carthage was destroyed.
4. What were the reasons for the prosperity of Han Empire?
• The Han Empire once again threw open the silk road for trade and a large export trade, mainly in silk, reached as far as the Roman Empire.
• Artisans and Herders of rival 'barbarian' dynasties in the north brought in new techniques like the methods of harnessing horses, use of saddle and stirrup, techniques of building bridges and mountain roads, and seafaring. Such innovations made Han Empire prosperous and rivalled that of Rome in size and wealth.
5. Write about St. Sophia Cathedral.
St. Sophia Cathedral
• The most magnificent building in Europe, St. Sophia Cathedral was built in mid-sixth century AD. It was known for its innovative architectural techniques.
• When the Ottoman Purks Captured Constantinople this Cathedral was turned into a Mosque.
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