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1. Discuss the response to Swadeshi Movement in Tamil Nadu.
• The partition of Bengal led to the Swadeshi Movement.
• The Swadeshi movement had its deep impact in Tamil Nadu.
• The Congress carried on a vigorous campaign for boycott of foreign goods.
• V.O.Chidambaranar, V.Chakkaraiyar, Subramania Bharathi and Ethiraj Surendranath Arya were some of the prominent leaders in Tamil Nadu.
• Public meetings were organized in various parts of Tamilnadu. Thousands of people attended them.
• Subramania Bharathi's patriotic songs stirred patriotic emotions.
• Many journals were started to propagate-Swadeshi ideals.
• Swadeshamitran and India were prominent journals.
• Bipin Chandra Pal toured Madras and delivered lectures which inspired the youth
• Students and youths participated widely in the Swadeshi movement.
• V.O.Chidambaranar started Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company in Thoothukudi. He purchased twoships Gallia and Lavo and plied them between Thoothukudi and Colombo.
• The arrest of V.O.C and Subramania Siva led to Tirunelvely uprising.
• In Tirunelveli a police station, court building and municipal office were burnt.
• Four people were killed in police firing.
• V.O.C. was treated harshly in prison. He was made to pull the heavy oil press.
• To avoid imprisonment Subramania Bharati moved to Pondicherry which was under French rule.'
• Many other leaders like Aurobindo Ghose and V.V. Subramanianar followed Bharati and left Tamil Nadu.
2. Examine the origin and growth of Non-Brahmin Movement in Tamil Nadu.
Madras Dravidian Association:
• The non - Brahmin's organised themselves into political organisations to protect their interest.
• In 1912 Madras Dravidian Association was founded .
• Its secretary C. Natesanar established the Dravidian Association Hostel for Non-Brahmin students.
The South Indian Liberal Federation:
• On 20 November 1916 a meeting of about thirty non-Brahmins was held in Chennai under the leadership of P.Thyagarajar, T.M.Nair and C. Nateranar at Victoria Public Hall, Chennai.
• The South Indian Liberal Federation was founded to promote the interest of the non-Brahmins.
• The Justice party won 63 out of 98 elected seats in the legislative council.
• A. Subburayalu of the Justice party became the first Chief Minister.
3. Describe the role of Tamil Nadu in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
• The Viceroy did not accept the demands put forward by Gandhi.
• So Gandhi launched the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Salt March to Vedaranyam:
• Rajaji organised and led a salt Satyagraha march to Vedaranyam.
• The march started from Tiruchirappalli on 13 April 1930 and reached Vedaranyam on 28th April.
• A special song was composed for the march by Namakkal V. Ramalinganar.
• There was a warm welcome to the Satyagrahis by the people all along the route.
• On reaching Vedaranyam 12 volunteers under the leadership of Rajaji broke the salt law by picking up salt.
• Rajaji was arrested for breaking the salt laws.
• Leaders like T.S.S.Rajan, Rukmani Lakshmipathi, Sardar Vedarathnam and K.Santhanam participated in the Vedaranyam Salt Satyagraha.
Agitations in Tamil districts:
• Under the leadership of T.Prakasam, the Satyagrahis set up a camp at Udayavanam. The police arrested them. It led to hartal in Madras. There were clashes with the police in Tiruvallikeni.
• People tried to break salt law at Rameswaram, Anjengo, Veppalodai, Thoothukudi and Tharuvaikulam were stopped by the police.
• Rukmani Lakshmipathi was the first woman to pay fine for taking part in the Satyagraha.
• Leaders like Bhashyam, Satyamurti and Kamaraj also played an important role.
• But the police used brutal force to suppress the movement.
Role of Tirupur Kumaran:
• In Tirupur a procession which was going on carrying national flag was brutally beaten by the police. Tirupur Kumaran fell dead holding the national flag aloft.
• He is hailed as Kodikatha Kumaran.
1. Students can be asked to write a sentence or two about the important places of freedom struggle in Tamil Nadu.
2. Role Play: Students can be divided into groups and asked to debate the views of the Moderates, Extremists, Revolutionaries, Annie Besant’s supporters, Justice Party, and British Government.
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