Each ovary is approximately 3 to 5 cm long, 2 to 3 cm wide, and 1 to 3 cm thick in the menstrual years. The size decreases by approximately two-thirds after menopause, when follicular development ceases. The ovary is attached to the broad ligament by the mesovarium, to the uterus by the ovarian ligament, and to the side of the pelvis by the sus-pensory ligament of the ovary (infundibulopelvic ligament), which is the lateral margin of the broad ligament. The outer ovarian cortex consists of follicles embedded in a connective tissue stroma. Embryologically, this stroma is the medulla that originated as the gonadal ridge, while the cortex origi-nated as coelomic epithelium. The medulla contains smooth muscle fibers, blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics.
The ovaries are mainly supplied by the ovarian arteries, which are direct branches of the abdominal aorta, but there also is a blood supply from the uterine artery, a branch of the hypogastric artery (or internal iliac artery). Venous return via the right ovarian vein is directly into the inferior vena cava, and from the left ovary into the left renal vein.