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## Chapter: Linear Integrated Ciruits : Application of Op-Amp

Similarly, it can be shown that the output voltage V04 due to V4 alone is Similarly, it can be shown that the output voltage V04 due to V4  alone is

V 04= V 4

Thus, the output voltage Vo due to all four input voltages is given by

Vo= V01+ V02+ V03+ V04

V o=@V1@V2+ V 3+ V 4

So, the circuit is an adder-subtractor.

Instrumentation Amplifier:

The difference gain of this instrumentation amplifier R, however should never be made zero, as this will make the gain infinity. To avoid such a situation, in a practical circuit, a fixed resistance in series with a potentiometer is used in place of R.

Figure 6(c) shows a differential instrumentation amplifier using Transducer Bridge. The circuit uses a resistive transducer whose resistance changes as a function of the physical quantity to be measured.

The bridge is initially balanced by a dc supply voltage Vdc so that V1=V2. As the physical quantity changes, the resistance RT of the transducer also changes, causing an unbalance in the bridge (V1 ≠V2). This differential voltage now gets amplified by the three op-amp differential instrumentation amplifier.

There are number differential applications of instrumentation amplifier with the transducer bridge, such as temperature indicator, temperature controller, and light intensity meter to name a few.

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Linear Integrated Ciruits : Application of Op-Amp : Adder/Subtractor |