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Chapter: Satellite Communication - Satellite Orbits

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Launching Procedures

Low Earth Orbiting satellites are directly injected into their orbits. This cannot be done incase of GEOs as they have to be positioned 36,000kms above the Earth‟s surface.

Launching Procedures :

 

1. Intoduction:

 

Low Earth Orbiting satellites are directly injected into their orbits. This cannot be done incase of GEOs as they have to be positioned 36,000kms above the Earth‟s surface.

 

Launch vehicles are hence used to set these satellites in their orbits. These vehicles are reusable. They are also known as „Space Transportation System‟ (STS).

 

When the orbital altitude is greater than 1,200 km it becomes expensive to directly inject the satellite in its orbit.

 

For this purpose, a satellite must be placed in to a transfer orbit between the initial lower orbit and destination orbit. The transfer orbit is commonly known as *Hohmann-Transfer Orbit.

 

2. Orbit Transfer:

 

(*About Hohmann Transfer Orbit: This manoeuvre is named for the German civil engineer who first proposed it, Walter Hohmann, who was born in 1880. He didn't work in rocketry professionally (and wasn't associated with military rocketry), but was a key member of Germany's pioneering Society for Space

 

Travel that included people such as Willy Ley, Hermann, and Werner von Braun. He published his concept of how to transfer between orbits in his 1925 book, The Attainability of Celestial Bodies.)

 

The transfer orbit is selected to minimize the energy required for the transfer. This orbit forms a tangent to the low attitude orbit at the point of its perigee and tangent to high altitude orbit at the point of its apogee.





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