Concept of Direct Manipulation
The term used to describe this style of interaction for graphical systems was first used by Shneiderman (1982). He called them â€śdirect manipulationâ€ť systems, suggesting that they possess the following characteristics:
The system is portrayed as an extension of the real world: A person is allowed to work in a familiar environment and in a familiar way, focusing on the data, not the application and tools. The physical organization of the system, which most often is unfamiliar, is hidden from view and is not a distraction.
Continuous visibility of objects and actions: objects are continuously visible. Reminders of actions to be performed are also obvious. Nelson (1980) described this concept as â€śvirtual reality,â€ť a representation of reality that can be manipulated. Hatfield (1981) is credited with calling it â€śWYSIWYGâ€ť (what you see is what you get) and Rutkowski (1982) described it as â€śtransparency,â€ť
Actions are rapid and incremental with visible display of results : the results of actions are immediately displayed visually on the screen in their new and current form. Auditory feedback may also be provided. The impact of a previous action is quickly seen, and the evolution of tasks is continuous and effortless.
Incremental actions are easily reversible: Finally, actions, if discovered to be incorrect or not desired, can be easily undone.
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