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Chapter: Business Science : Customer Relationship Management : Trends in CRM

e-CRM Introduction

e-CRM is the application of CRM to an e-business‘ strategy – Includes the personalization and custom interactions with the e-business


Customer Relationship Management (CRM)


Focuses on providing and maintaining quality service for customers, by effectively communicating and delivering products, services, information and solutions to address customer problems, wants and needs


Can include:


      Call handling (the maintenance of outbound and inbound calls from customers and service representatives)


      Sales tracking (the tracking and recording of all sales made)


      Transaction support (the technology and personnel used for conducting business transactions)




e-CRM is the application of CRM to an e-business‘   strategy


Includes the personalization and custom interactions with the e-business



      Relationship between merchant and customers is distant


      Less expensive to keep customers than to acquire new ones


      Repeat customers have higher lifetime value than one-time buyers


A customer‘slifetimevalueis the expected amount of profit derived from a customer over a designated length of time


      Evaluate the potential to profit from a customer


      Tracking and Analyzing Data


      Employ tracking devices


Personalize   each   visitor‘s   experience


Find trends in customer use


Measure the effectiveness of a Web site over time


ID cards




      An ID card enables information to be sent to your computer from a Web site such as the numerical address of your PC on the Internet, your browser and your operating system


·        Click-through banner advertisements


      Click-through advertisements enable visitors to view a service or product by clicking the advertisement


      Advertisers can learn what sites generate sales


      Tracking and Analyzing Data


Web Bugs, or clear GIFs


      A type of image file embedded in an image on the screen


      Site owners allow companies, especially advertising companies, to hide these information-collecting programs on various parts of their sites


      Every time a user requests a page with a Web bug on it, the Web bug


sends a request to server,thewhichWebthentracksbug‘s com where the user goes on the Web.


Log-file analysis


Data mining


Customer registration




      Log-File Analysis


      When visiting a site, you are submitting a and the request is recorded in a log file



Log files consist   of   data   generated   by   site   v


IP address, time of visit, frequency of visits and other information


Log-file analysis organizes and summarizes the information contained in the log files


      Can be used to determine the number of unique visitors


      Can show the Web-site traffic effects of changing a Web site or advertising campaign


      Customer Registration


Requiring visitors to fill out a form with personal information that is then used to create a profile


Recommended when it will provide a benefit to the customer


When customers log on using usernames and passwords, their actions can be tracked and stored in a database


      Require only minimum information


      Give customers an incentive to register


Free-trial run or a free demonstration to familiarize the user


      After customer registration, send an e-mail including customer usernames and welcoming them to your Web site




  A text file stored by a Web siteallows a on an site to track the actions of a



Information collected is intended to be an anonymous account of log-on times, the length of stay at the site, purchases made on the site, the site previously visited and the site visited next


Does not interact with other information stored on the system

– Can only be read by the host that sets them on a person‘s computer


      Cookies Benefits


Record passwords for returning visitors


Keep track of shopping-cart materials


Register preferences


Assist companies in address target markets with greater accuracy




Customer privacy


Can be misleading to site that places cookie on a computer


      Different people may use the same computer to surf the Web, and the cookie will not be able to differentiate the users




– Uses information from tracking, mining and data analysis to customize a person‘s interactions with a company‘s products, services, Web site and employees


       Allaire, Blaze Software, NetGenesis and  Personify



      Establish relationships that improve each time visitors return to site


      Customers may enjoy individual attention and become more loyal




Collaborative filtering


Compares ratings of a present user‘s in users to offer content relative to the



Rules-based personalization


  The delivery of personalized content based on the subjection of a user‘s p set rules or assumptions


Intelligent Agents


A program that can be used on the Web to assist a user in the completion of a specified task, including searching for information and automating tasks


         Can be used as personalization mechanisms by providing content related to the user‘s  interests



      Can observe Web-surfing habits and purchasing behavior to recommend new products to buy or sites to visit


      Can help e-businesses offer a level of customer service similar to person-to-person interaction


Personalization vs. Privacy


      Some people feel personalization represents invasion of privacy and others may not be aware that data is being collected and personalization is occurring at a site


      Marketers must be discrete about the way they use personal information gained from data research


 Personalization Consortium


An alliance of major Web sites attempting to accommodate those individuals who prefer to have their Web experiences tailored


Released a study suggesting that most users actually prefer to have their information stored and actions tracked


Contact Centers


      Traditional call centers house customer-service representatives who can be reached by an 800 number


      Call center, e-contact center or multimedia contact center



Purpose is the same—to provide a personal customer service experience that is individualized to each customer‘s needs


Allow customers with Internet access to contact customer service representatives through e-mail, online text chatting or real-time voice communications


      Integration of all customer service functions


      Change the culture of customer service representatives


More technically knowledgeable to handle all forms of contact


Provide a highly personalized experience that satisfies customers


      New forms of contact can decrease costs


      Outsource contact center services


May be appropriate if a company cannot afford to implement a contact center due to the costs of equipment, office space, service representatives and technical support.


 Stream International, Inc. Sitel  Corporation and  TeleTech




      E-mail can provide a less expensive customer service solution


– – Customers can use e-mail to ask questions or comment on your company‘s services or products



      Only appropriate if you have resources to handle demands


      Customers may be not be willing to wait long for an e-mail reply


•   • Ideally, a response to a customer‘s e-mail inquiry should be completed within forty-eight hours


 Brightware RightNow  Technologies , Servicesoft  and  Delano


Online Text Chatting




Provides a real-time form of communication between customers and service representatives


      Service representatives may be able to handle more than one text chat at a time


      Customers can continue to view the Web site as they chat with a service representative




Allows the service representative to see what the customers are looking at as they pose their questions




If representatives are busy with many chat sessions, customer may experience delay in responses


      Can lose the dynamics of human communication


      The meaning of a message may be misinterpreted


       FaceTime Communications, CLICKiCHAT and  LivePersonSM


      Voice Communications


      Internet provides another channel for human-to-human voice communication


      Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)


VoIP products and applications allow people to communicate with speech over the Internet


      Internet telephony allows people to make phone calls over the Internet


Quality of transmission yet to match regular telephone


Many companies are using PC-to-phone communication because it is of higher


quality than PC-to-PC


      A person speaks from a computer to another person who responds through another computer


       PC-to-phone (computer-to-phone) voice communication


Allows a visitor to a Web site to continue browsing while talking to a customer-service representative over the Internet


Allows dial-up Internet users who have only one phone line to chat with a CSR without having to disconnect from the Internet


 HearMe, RealCall, Web Call Back and  ITXC




Software program that walks you through the steps needed to complete a task on your computer



Sales-Force Automation


Assists companies in the sales process, including maintaining and discovering leads, managing contacts and other sales-force activities


Can lighten the administrative load on the sales force


Important information about products and customers can be accessed in real time, allowing salespeople to keep current on company and client information


      Customers may want human contact at some point throughout the purchasing process, especially with higher-priced items


       Salesforce.com, Sales.com Sales Logix and  Clarify


      Business-to-Business e-CRM


      Key to (B2B) e-commerce is effective (CRM)


      When selling to another business, you may be selling to someone who is not the direct user of your product


Ask your contact to speak with the end users


      Developing good partner relationship management (PRM) includes increasing efficiency in operations and processes between a business and its partners


Partners can include resellers, distributors and businesses that improve your product or service


Integrating systems to combine selling, buying and marketing operations of partners will streamline processes and provide technical conformity


 ChannelWave Software, Inc., Allegis  and  Partnerware


      Complete e-CRM Solutions


      Solutions, software or services that use and integrate all the tools of CRM provide a single view of a customer


Costs include the price of the software or service itself, the integration into the current system, the maintenance of the system and employing the service representatives


Solutions will continue to become more efficient






       Siebel Systems



       Kana Communications


       Oracle Systems


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