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A Nice Cup of Tea | Prose | By George Orwell - Writing | 12th English : UNIT 2 : Prose : A Nice Cup of Tea

Chapter: 12th English : UNIT 2 : Prose : A Nice Cup of Tea


An article is a piece of writing penned for a large group of readers, usually intended for publication in newspapers or magazines.



Article Writing

An article is a piece of writing penned for a large group of readers, usually intended for publication in newspapers or magazines. Therefore, the objective of writing an article should be to attract the attention of the readers and to retain their interest as well. The author of an article should be well informed about the subject and should have a wide knowledge of the same. He/She should be creative and should possess good vocabulary. He/She should develop the skill to organise and present ideas in a coherent and logical manner.


Salient points to remember while writing an article.

·           Provide a catchy or captivating title or heading. The first letter of every content word in the caption should begin with a capital letter.

·           The title should give an idea of the subject to being dealt with.

·           The title should be followed by the name of the author. [by …..]

·           Try to conform to the prescribed word limit.

·           The language should be simple and formal.

·           Grammatical accuracy should be ensured.

·           Relevant value points should be gathered.

·           Expand the ideas into 3 or 4 paragraphs.


Structure of the article.

The First Paragraph

·           Define and introduce the topic.

·           Begin the article with an interesting adage, a slogan, an amazing fact or with some statistics, facts and figures.

The Second Paragraph

·           Give a detailed explanation of the topic.

·           Include the causes and effects.

·           Refer to examples, anecdotes, experiences and present state of affairs.

·           Talk about merits and demerits/ advantages and disadvantages

The Third Paragraph

·           Suggest suitable solutions for the problem discussed.

·           Give a proper conclusion.



The Government of Tamil nadu has imposed a ban on the use of plastic. Effective implementation of this ban depends on public awareness and individual responsibility.

Write an article of 150 words for your school magazine to create an awareness of the dangers posed by indiscriminate use of plastic. Expand the ideas given below as notes.


a. Introduction

(i) Plastic – synthetic material – doesn’t decompose in soil

(ii) Inevitable role of plastic – man’s day-to-day life

b. Human Health Hazard

(i) Leeching of plastic into food – micro plastic entering food chain

(ii) Human body’s inability to deal with this unnatural substance

(iii) Reaction of micro plastic in human body and ill effects

c. Adverse effects on plants and animals

(i) Plastic particles choking waterways – affect aquatic animals

(ii) Ingestion by aquatic and terrestrial animals–blocking of intestines and respiratory passages

d. Environmental Degradation

(i) Manufacturing process and burning of plastics–pollute atmosphere

(ii) Plastic–non-biodegradable– interferes with soil microorganisms – affects soil fertility

e. Conclusion

(i) Suggestions for restricted use – alternatives for one-time use of plastics

(ii) Segregation of plastic waste – for recycling


Plastic has become an inevitable role of man’s day to day life. Initially, we must know that plastic is a synthetic material. It doesn’t decompose in soil. Using plastics is harmful to the environment.

Human health hazard:

Plastic affects human health. Toxic chemicals leach out of plastic and are found in the blood and tissue of nearly all of us. It causes different human health problems like irritation in the eye, vision failure, breathing difficulties, cancers, skin diseases, lungs problems by using toxic plastics. Human body is unable to deal with this unnatural substances. Reaction of micro plastic in human body causes ill effect. Adverse effects on plants and animals:

Large amount of plastic waste is dumped in landfills. Wind carries plastic bags and other small plastic particles from one place to another. Plastic particles release harmful chemicals that deposit in the soil and ruin its quality. It impacts the growth of the plants. Plastic bags and other plastic litter that goes into rivers and seas.

The marine creatures who often gulp them as food eventually fall sick. Animals mostly feed on food thrown in the garbage. Plastic bags often get struck in their intestines and choke them to death. They are also a cause of many serious illenesses.

Environmental degradation:

Plastic pollution is caused due to the accumulation of the waste plastic material in the environment. Plastic is a non-bio-degradable substance. It doesn’t get disposed off in the soil or water. It remains in the environment for hundred years. It causes air, water, and land pollution. It is hazardous for the humans, animals and the plants.


We can certainly restrict our plastic usage. A number of plastic products such as plastic bags, containers, glasses, bottles, can easily replaced by eco-friendly alternatives such as cloth, paper bags, steel utensils. In fact, the government only cannot do anything. Each one of us must work towards combating this problem.



Urban living brings with it a possibility of various communicable diseases.

Now write an article of about 150 words for a leading newspaper on the various ways of maintaining personal hygiene and sanitation in order to ensure a healthy living. Make use of the hints given below.


a) Introduction – ‘Cleanliness is next to Godliness’ – brief explanation

b) Personal hygiene

(i) Frequent washing of hands and regular bathing

(ii) Brushing of teeth, trimming of nails and hair

(iii) Wearing clean clothes

c) Keeping diseases at bay

(i) Avoid street food

(ii) Keep food containers covered

(iii) Drink boiled water

(iv) Wash fruits and vegetables in flowing water

d) Keeping living areas, surroundings and the environment clean

(i) Disposal of domestic organic waste on a daily basis and hazardous waste in designated places

(ii) Regular sweeping, mopping and dusting

(iii) Disinfection of toilets and bathing areas

(iv) Avoid littering of public places

(v) Avoid spitting, urinating and defecating in public places

e) Conclusion – hygiene – a collective exercise – everyone’s involvement and practice, a must – ensure community health and happiness – celebrate life

Cleanliness is next to Godliness


Being clean is a sign of spiritual purity or godness. By cleanliness we mean the habit of keeping physically and mentally clean. Godliness should begin from the heart. Cleanliness is necessary to health. Dirt is the mother of ill health and suffering. Cleanliness is necessary for self-respect.

Personal hygiene:

We should wash our hands before eating and after eating frequently. We should bath at dawn regularly in cool water. We should brush our teeth twice a day. We should trim our nails and hair properly. So we must keep our body, our clothes, and our house clean.

Keeping diseases at bay:

We should avoid street food and also avoid noodles, junk food and fried rice. We should keep the food in covered containers. We should drink boiled water. We should wash fruits and vegetables in flowing water.

Keeping living areas, surrounding and the environment clean:

We should' dispose of domestic organic waste on a daily basis and hazardous waste in designated places. We must sweep, mop and dusting the floor regularly. We should clean our toilets and bathroom areas for avoiding infection. We should avoid littering of public places. We should avoid spitting, urinating and defecating in public places.


Cleanliness is the responsibility of everyone. So we should maintain the cleanliness and hygiene of our surrounding and ourselves. A clean body keeps us healthy and away from the doctors. Thus it saves the medical expenses. It gives us a good and positive thought in the mind. It gives sound health and happiness not only to the body but also to the mind.


Suggested Topics:

·           Importance of Physical Exercises / Sports and Games

·           Travel and its Benefits

·           Water Conservation

·           Child Labour

·           Mobile Phone – Advantages and Disadvantages

·           Consumerism – Wants and Needs

·           Value of Education

·           Value based Education

1. Importance of physical exercises/ sports and games:

The importance of sports and games in one’s life is invaluable and has many physical and mental health benefits. In schools, importance is given to sports to make the overall development of children. So they prepare them to face all the challenges of life. It enhances their capability. So that they can perform better in their academic career and achieve the goal of their life.

Sports also play a vital role in developing values and mutual trust. They help us to take instant decision and also enhance our reasoning skills. Sports prepare us to face the challenges of life in a very positive and calm way.

Sports is one of the best exercise which helps to maintain the overall fitness of an individual. It also helps to improve their academic level and makes them alert and attentive. Sports not only develop our physical strength and keep us fit but it is also does more to our overall personality. It helps in character building, developing leadership skills and improving goal setting capabilities. Sports makes children learn values,, ethics, discipline, responsibility and develop a sense of mutual trust and confidence.

2. The travel and its benefits:

Traveling is wonderful in many ways. As we travel, we meet new people, cultures, and life styles. With all the newness in our life, we are also opened to new insights, outlook, perception of the world and living. It gives us a new purpose for our lives.

While travelling, we have to be prepared for unplanned emergencies, and schedules. We have to make arrangements for our travelling, lodging and boarding. This is more organized and self-reliant.

While travelling, we find our general outlook on life widened exceptionally. We realize that this vast world is our home. At that time, we make new friends at the new places and carry their memories home. Thus travelling makes our life more wonderful.

Travelling as a means of education means an educational trip is very useful. It enables most of the students to visit different places. An educational trip enriches the mind of student with knowledge and broadens their outlook. It was really very curious to visit different places of interest. It enables the students to learn much about the world.

3. Water conservation:

Water is the first need for anyone. So water conservation is the hot topic today. It simply means making use of water in an appropriate manner. Since our lives depend entirely on water, it is out duty to think about water conservation.

97% of our planet is covered with salt water that we cannot use for drinking. The remaining 3% of the water is cool but 2% is also blocked by glaciers and ice caps. So we only have 1% left. So we only depend on a small percentage of water. So it is our responsibility not to pollute and abuse it.

4. Child labour:

Child labour is a curse on our lives. Many of them are forced to work in inhumane conditions. Children are forced to work without adequate food, proper wages and rest. They are subject to physical, sexual and emotional abuse.

This problem is often bom of family poverty, lack of social security, the increasing difference between the rich and the poor. We have failed to provide universal education. As a result, children have to leave from school and enter labour power. The situation of poor.

The use of modem irrigation methods in the agricultural sector can also help to save water. With the help of management of the floods, water can also be saved. Water can also be conserved through the collection of rain water. For example, digging lakes, canals, ponds to collect water, and then installing filtration systems to use. It can be a great help. This water can easily be used for gardening, lawn irrigation or for toilets. We can also conserve water through rain water harvesting. Try to turn off the faucet while brushing your teeth. Try to buy energy efficient appliances for our daily needs such as bathtubs, sink. Educate your ward to do the same.

5. Mobile phone - advantages and disadvantages:

It have many names like cell phone, mobile phone, smart phone. This is a portable device. In simple devices, we only access to make and receive calls and send and receive the messages.

Advantages of Mobile phones:

Cell phone technology give the connectivity to our family and friends, even they are million of distance far from whole world. The millions of people are connected with the business of phones. With the help of cell phones we can control our business. There are a lot of learning applications for students in app store. With the help of these apps students can leam and get the applications according their subjects. Today’s children are very fond of cartoons, games, and other entertaining materials. We can easily know our location with the help of GPS during travelling. Alarm and reminder are in the favour of your help. Calculator and calendars are available in every mobile. We can easily transfer our data such as photos, videos, and other important documents within seconds. Legal issues can be solved with the proof of call recording and SMS data recovery.

Disadvantages of Mobile phones:

Use of mobile every time keeps you far from your friends, family and other relatives. By using cell phone, we waste our time. It affects the human health, such as eyes, hands and minds. Because of using the mobile phones, the students can get bad results in studies. Some people use it during driving, which causes accident. Other people can easily steal your images, videos, and photos. So it has both advantages and disadvantages.

6. Consumerism - wants and needs:

Demand is the economic principal that describes a consumer’s desire, willingness, and ability to pay a price for a specific good or service. Consumer wants and needs are the drivers of all strategic marketing decisions.

A consumer want is the desire for products, or services, that are not necessary, but which consumers wish for.

A need is consumer’s desire for a product’s or service’s specific benefit whether that be functional or emotional.

There is a five step process that consumers can go through in making purchase decision,

i) need recognition

ii) information search

iii) Evaluation of alternative

iv) purchases

v) post - purchase.

The products should fulfil wants and needs of the consumers. The consumer wants to know about the product, brand or a store, which will help to solve the problem. One consumer may consider price to be the most important factor and other may consider more weight upon quality. Marketers can do it simplify purchasing will attract buyers, providing basic product, price, labels, advertising.

7. Value of Education:

Learning and knowledge are highly praised in all societies. Education is really important for today’s Society. Education is a way to develop mentally and morally. The main function of education is the development of an all round and well-balanced personality. Education should develop all dimensions of the human intellect. Then only our children can make our nation more democratic, socially responsible, culturally rich and intellectually competitive nation. wtsteamlOO@gmail.com girl in the society is even more fragile. The immature child works as a home service provider. They work in hotels, factories, shops, and construction sites and also run rickshaws.

We first try to understand and remove the root cause. As long as there will be starvation in the country and the citizens of the country are not educated, such problems will remain the same. Strict instructions are required to prevent child labour. We believe our efforts will be meaningful and the problem of child labour can be eradicated by giving a good universal education.

Now our education is based on knowledge and job . oriented.

The real value of education should be included physical, emotional, social, and spiritual. Education is not only for getting job but also should reveal the hidden potential Education should inculcate respecting parents and teachers, knowing ethic and culture, and making good citizen. The teacher should know the hidden ability of the students. Education doesn’t come by force. Universal education should be given to all the students. The students should develop the creativity skills. Then only we can survive in the society.

8. Value Based Education:

Value Based Education imparts social, moral, integrity, character and spirituality. It builds the qualities of humility, confidence, and honesty in a person. Then only they become better citizens of a country. People those who have high ethical values, will never cheat others. People are taught to co-operate with other people. They make their life happier and work hard to make others happy.

Students leam moral values at school. The teacher have to teach them about universal brotherhood, respect for all religions feeling of honour for our great men, sense of pride in our.national flag. The child has to be taught the lesson in “Unify is diversity”. The young should learn what is moral and what is immoral. The process of living is a process of learning. Mother is the first teacher of child. She has to encourage him/her to always speak the truth and never tell a lie. So the child can develop this faith and he never falls a victim to the falsehood. Value Based Education can play a vital role in designing their intellectual, the physical, the emotional and psychological aspects.

Essay Writing

An essay is an attempt or a trial in writing a piece of composition.

An essay should have

  a definite theme or purpose

  a logical order and coherence

  a good objective and style


Structure of an essay.

  Catchy introduction

  Main text – divided into paragraphs

  Good conclusion – summing up the main idea


Before writing an essay.

  Read a lot in order to be well informed.

  Gather information from various sources – internet, books, magazines, etc.

  Collect anecdotes, quotes, proverbs that would come in handy.


While Writing

·           Jot down main points and sub points

·           Sketch the first draft

·           Read, revise, edit, correct and proof – readit

·           Make a fair draft

“A Nice Cup of Tea” is an essay by George Orwell. There are famous essayists like Francis Bacon, Charles Lamb, J. Krishnamurthi whose essays will inspire you to write more.


Task 1

Write an essay of about 200 words each.

1. The profession you would like to choose

2. The importance of a balanced diet

3. A memorable journey

1. The profession you would like to choose: 


We should have some aim in our life. A life without any specific aim is like a boat without oars. It is like sailing in a ship without knowing the destination. Only a purposeful life is to be aimed at. Ambition differs from person to person depending upon his/her taste.

Teaching profession:

First and foremost is the profession of teaching. Because a teacher is a nation builder. A teacher is a role model for the students. Still, one can say, teaching is the noblest of all profession. Indeed, no one can do without teacher in life. Because teachers are the primary guides to the students and societies.

The noblest profession:

The teacher should be kind, fair, and enduring. Teacher teaches not only to count, read and write, but also teaches courtesy, mutual respect, kindness, justice, and honesty. This is very laborious work and requires constant effort and perseverance. Only those who love children, can become ideal teachers.

Services to the children:

I want to serve the down-trodden children. 1 want to uplift their life. I teach them how to face hazards and hurdles in life. Definitely I can make them learned. I guide them how to succeed in life. I motivate them to enrich knowledge and enhance their potential. 


I want to be not only a teacher but also as guide, role model, and adviser. I firmly believe that a teacher can make a good student. According to myself, teaching is not a profession. It is a continuous learning process. So 1 am very proud to be a teacher. So I want to become a teacher.

2. The importance of a balanced diet


A balanced diet is one that gives your body the nutrients it needs to function correctly. To get the proper nutrition from your diet, you should consume fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, grains and nuts. A balanced diet is not all about eating the right foods, but having them at correct time in right proportions.

The major nutrients:

Our body needs proteins. carbohydrates and fat. It needs vitamins and minerals for its optimal functioning. They provide the body with energy for various functions like beating of heart, activity of muscles and brain.

Uses of balanced diet:

Protein helps to grow hair, nail and'muscle. Protein includes meat, eggs, poultry, seafood, pulses, nuts and soya. Fruits and vegetables provide in the form of vitamins and minerals. They are high in their water content and low in their fat content.

Facilitates hydration:

Our body contains 60-75 percent of water. It is needed several functions like regulation of temperature, transport, absorption of nutrients and elimination of waste products from the body. So water is the best thing to prevent dehydration.

Balanced diet food:

Vegetables are primary sources of essential vitamins and minerals. Dark leafy greens contain the most nutrition. Meats and beans are primary source of protein. Dairy products provide calcium and vitamin D. Our balanced diet should contain bitter, pungent, sour, sweet and salt tastes.

Make time to chew food:

Healthy eating starts with smart eating. Chewing is essential to digest many of components. We must eat slowly rather than swallowing.


As we start eating a balance diet, we begin to have more energy, and feel less stressed. Diet is the foundation of one’s well-being.

3. A Memorable journey:


Life is a continuous journey. Some journeys are short and some are long. Some journeys are sweet and pleasant while some are sour. Some journeys are memorable. I had one such experience. The memory of this journey continuous to flicker, on and on in my mind even after several years.

An excursion to NEWDELHI:

As I was born and brought up in the village, I had no opportunity to see a train or to travel in one. Therefore, when my school organized an excursion to New Delhi. I was one of the first to join.

My first experience:

We reached the central railway station early in the morning. We boarded the train. The train started off at 6.00 am. 1 sat by the window and enjoyed the passing scenery. The sights of numerous rivers, bridges, countryside, evergreen paddy fields, and vast plains enchanted me a lot.

Unforgettable incident:

In the afternoon we reached the Gwalior Station. Some of us got out of the train to have a look at the station. The various stalls of the station attracted our attention and we too moved about the platform enjoying these sights. Suddenly we saw our train moving. We were at far end of the platform and ran with speed to catch the train. But the train was moving fast. As I was about to reach the train, I slipped and fell on the platform. I shivered with fear. My friends were shouting to run faster.

Suddenly a coolie lifted me and ran with me to the door, where my friends pulled me in. I got only a glimpse of his face. But that face continues to remain afresh in my mind. The incident deeply scared me.


I can never forget this memorable journey. The reminiscence of this journey often flicker in my mind every now and then. Whenever this happens, I say a short prayer for the kind man, who helped me to get into the train.

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