The underlined words in the following sentences from the text are the examples of prepositions.
1. If you look up ‘tea’ in the first cookery book,
2. Fifthly, the tea should be put straight into the pot.
· ‘in’ is used for the placement of noun inside another noun.
· ‘into’ is used for the movement of a noun from one status to an other status.
A preposition is a word or a phrase that is used to show the relationship between a noun and another noun.
Here are a few prepositions which cause confusion. The examples illustrate the correct usage.
since → for an action continuing from the past to the present time
· Yuvan has been playing badminton well since 2014.
for → the total duration of an action/ existence from the past to the present time
· Yuvan has been playing badminton for the past four years.
above → when one thing is not directly over the other
· My brother lived in the mountains above the lake.
over → for horizontal movement at a higher level
· I saw a helicopter fly over a lake.
below → ‘Below’ is the opposite of ‘above’
· Her head was below the level of the table. So, nobody noticed her.
under → ‘under’ is the opposite of ‘over’; for horizontal movement at a lower level
· A child places his toys under a blanket.
· A boy ran under the bridge when the river was dry.
along → for following a line of specific movement
· A man walked along the side of the river.
through → for movement in a three dimensional space from one side to the other
· Hunters walked through the forest.
between → used for two nouns/adverbials, when there is ‘and’ in the sentence
· There was amity between Jessie Owens and Luz Long in the Berlin Olympics.
among → used for more than two nouns, when there is the use of ‘and’ in the sentence
· There was a healthy discussion about communal harmony among Ramesh, Abdul and John.
before →used for the second action in a phrase when we mention two actions
· Before eating food, we clean our hands.
after → used for the first action in a phrase when we mention two actions
· After eating food, children love playing.
Recall your learning of basic prepositions and complete the sentences using the prepositions given in brackets.
a) The boy jumped into a narrow stream.
b) Afsar will meet me on Friday morning.
c) The temple is in front of the bank.
d) My friend will meet me with his brother tomorrow.
e) There is usually a garden beside a bungalow.
f) Yuvan has been studying well since childhood.
g) A trekker climbed over a mountain meticulously.
h) There was a skirmish between my brother and sister.
i) The laudable thoughts were apparent among many scholars in a conference.
j) It is easy to work under the aegis of visionary leader.
Complete the following passages using the prepositions given in brackets.
(among, for, at, to, in, )
i) When Lakshmi was (1) at school, she practised music from Monday (2) to Friday. She involved herself (3) in the school orchestra. She was responsible (4) for conducting many programmes. She was very popular (5) among her schoolmates, as she was kind, friendly and helpful.
(after, with, on, before, of, in, for)
ii) (1)Before the interview, Solomon was confident (2) of getting the job. He knew that he was qualified (3) for the job. He was interested (4) in discharging his duty perfectly. The interview panel was impressed (5) with his attitude and skills. So (6) after the interview, he was (7) on cloud nine.
A prepositional phrase is made up of a preposition and a noun phrase.
Underline the prepositional phrases. The first two examples have been done for you.
a) With reference to your advertisement in a local newspaper, I am applying for the post of a salesman.
b) The assignment will be completed in a few weeks.
c) Ravi was appreciated by his teachers.
d) We feel sorry for our mistakes.
e) The boy studied well in spite of many obstacles.
f) Our nation is famous for its glorious culture.
g) We are proud of our children.
h) My brother will return home in the evening.
Fill in the blanks with suitable prepositional phrase given in brackets.
(in favour of, in case of, according to, on the whole, on account of, on behalf of, in spite of, instead of)
a) Instead of Kiran, Rajesh may attend a programme.
b) Many tourists visited Ooty inspite of heavy rains.
c) Expressing gratitude on behalf of others is common in a vote of thanks.
d) On the whole, I had a happy childhood.
e) Our teacher always acts in favour her students.
f) On account of his laziness, the boy remained passive for a long time.
g) According to Gandhiji, ahimsa means infinite love.
h) In case of rain, take an umbrella.
A conjunction is a word that joins together words, phrases, clauses or sentences. There are two types of conjunctions, namely coordinating conjunctions and subordinating conjunctions.
Coordinating conjunctions are used in compound sentences. They help in joining sentences and independent clauses of equal rank.
Subordinating conjunctions are words that join two clauses, one being sub ordinate to the other. They are used to join complex sentences.
Subordinating conjunctions express:
Correlative conjunctions are words that are always used in pairs to join sentences.
both…..and, either …..or, neither…..nor, whether…..or, not only…..but also, such...
that, scarcely...when, no sooner...than, as...as, so...that, rather than...
Connectives are words that join or link ideas in a sentence. They can also be used to connect ideas together in separate sentences and to link ideas between paragraphs.
Connectives help in facilitating the flow of language in construction of proper structures while writing or speaking. They help to connect ideas so as to smoothly link one point or a paragraph to the next to make our writing or speaking more powerful.
Choose the appropriate linker from within the brackets and complete the sentences.
a) I could not complete my paper in the examination _________ (because, but) I was slow in answering the questions.
b) It started raining, _________ (yet, so) we could not play.
c) _________ (As, If ) I got up early, I managed to reach school on time.
d) _________ (Though/Whereas) he committed a mistake, he apologized _________ (and/since ) promised that he would not repeat it.
e) This is _________ (how/what) it must be done.
f) The vendor saw the train moving slowly from the platform, _________ (therefore/until) he got in.
g) I was not well, _________ (but/so) I did not attend the class.
h) (If, Although) _________ she can drive , she travels by bus.
i) (If/Unless) _________ you register your name, you cannot participate in the competitions.
j) (As soon as/Besides) _________ my father arrived home, I narrated the incident.
k) Be quick to hear _________ (then/ and) slow to speak.
l) I am _________ (neither/either) an ascetic in theory _________(nor/or) in practice.
m) We fail to harness the rain water, _________ (consequently, nevertheless) we suffer.
n) My brother will certainly clear GRE; _________ (yet/for) he works very hard.
Combine the sentences and rewrite them using the words given in the brackets.
a) The well was deep. Therefore, the fox could not get out of the well. (because)
The fox could not get out
of the well, because the well was deep.
b) The work was over. We went home. (when)
When the work was over, we
c) A library is a public place. We see a number of books kept there for reading. (where)
A library is a public
place, where we see a number of books kept for reading.
d) The culprit was caught. Immediately, he was taken to the police station. (as soon as)
As soon as the culprit was
caught, he was taken to the police station.
e) The boys were stealing mangoes from a grove. At that time, the owner of the grove came in.(while)
While the boys were
stealing mangoes from a grove the owner of the grove came in.
f) Artificially flavoured juices are hazardous to health. Moreover, they lead to kidney problems. (and)
juices are hazardous to health and they lead to kidney problems.
g) Adit has been promoted. Ranjan has been promoted. (as well as)
Adit as well as Ranjan has
h) Caesar was declared emperor. The conspirators killed him. (After)
After caesar was declared
emperor, the conspirators killed him.
Fill in the blanks with appropriate correlative conjunctions.
a) She is such an understanding person that everybody likes to be with her.
b) Suraj owns both a typewriter and a computer.
c) Vani is not only a good singer but also a good dancer.
d) Amit did not know whether his father met his class teacher or not .
e) I would rather starve than beg.