Water Resources Development
Utilisation of available water of a region for use of a community has perhaps been practiced from the dawn of civilization. In India, since civilization flourished early, evidences of water utilization has also been found from ancient times. For example at Dholavira in Gujarat water harvesting and drainage systems have come to light which might had been constructed somewhere between 300-1500 BC that is at the time of the Indus valley civilization. In fact, the Harappa and Mohenjodaro excavations have also shown scientific developments of water utilization and disposal systems. They even developed an efficient system of irrigation using several large canals. It has also been discovered that the Harappan civilization made good use of groundwater by digging a large number of wells. Of other places around the world, the earliest dams to retain water in large quantities were constructed in Jawa (Jordan) at about 3000 BC and in WadiGarawi (Egypt) at about 2660 BC. The Roman engineers had built log water conveyance systems, many of which can still be seen today, Qanatsor underground canals that tap an alluvial fan on mountain slopes and carry it over large distances, were one of the most ingenious of ancient hydro-technical inventions, which originated in Armenia around 1000BC and were found in India since 300 BC.
Although many such developments had taken place in the field of water resources in earlier days they were mostly for satisfying drinking water and irrigation requirements. Modern day projects require a scientific planning strategy due to:
1. Gradual decrease of per capita available water on this planet and especially in our country.
2. Water being used for many purposes and the demands vary in time and
3. Water availability in a region ‚Ä'like county or state or watershed is not equally distributed.
4. The supply of water may be from rain, surface water bodies and ground