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Warped surfaces have a great advantage for shell structure because they may be formed from straight form boards eventhough they are surfaces of double curvature.There are two typeswhich are most useful:the conoid which as its name suggests is a portion of a cone& the hyperbolic paraboloid,a name for a particular mathematical surface.This type of shell structure can be built to what appears to be the ultimate in lightness of construction,minimum reinforcing & ease of moving forms.
Stresses in the hyperbolic paraboloid shell are almost entirely membrane(direct tension& compression)& all forces are delivered as shear parallel to the stiffening ribs.The shell thickness in structures is on &one half inches except for slight extra thickness at the intersection of the surface.This dimension is based on a cover of one centimeter on each side of two layers of bars & not an any structural requirement for strength.
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