Universal Immunization Programme:
The Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) was taken up in
the year l985-86 and was given a status of National Technology Mission in 1986.
The programme became operational in all the districts, of the country by the
year 1989-90 and became part of CSSM programme in 1992 and RCH programme in
Under the immunization programme,
vaccination to infants are given for control of vaccine preventable diseases
namely diphtheria, pertussis, childhood tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, measles
and neonatal tetanus and to pregnant women against tetanus. Except for the
polio vaccine, which is administered orally, all other vaccines are injectable.
The country is self sufficient in
all vaccines except BCG and OPV. OPV is currently being blended from imported
concentrate. The indigenous capacity of BCG is being enhanced to meet the
The immunization services are being provided through the
existing health care delivery system i.e., MCH centres, primary health centres
and sub-centres, hospitals. dispensaries and ICD units. There is no separate
cadre of staff for UIP. The recommended national immunization schedule gives
It is generally agreed that when immunization coverage
reaches a figure of 80 percent or more, then disease transmission patterns are
so severely disrupted as to provide a. degree of protection even for the
remaining children who have not been immunized, because of 'herd immunity'.
It is also important that children
are immunized during the first year of life and that levels of immunization are
sustained so that each new generation is protected.
The impact of the programme is
already seen in declining trends of the disease incidence. For example,
poliomyelitis which was reported around 38,090 cases in 1981, had declined
marginally by 1987 to 28,264 cases, has shown a significant decline after OPV
vaccination coverage level reached 50 to 60 percent. During 2001 only
268 cases were reported.
Intensification of immunization
programme has contributed to a significant decline in infant mortality rate in
the last few years. The decline is particularly pronounced after 1990 as
compared to earlier years.
So far, the vaccination coverage
achieved under UIP is about 80-90 percent in different parts of the country.
The objective in the Ninth Plan was to reach 100 per cent coverage.
As a supplement of the UIP, the Pulse Polio Immunization
campaign has been taken up for eradication of poliomyelitis. Later on,
campaigns may be taken up against tetanus among pregnant women and newboms and