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Chapter: Business Science - Human Resource Management - Training and Executive Development

Types of Employee Training

Some commentator use a similar term for workplace learning to improve performance: ―training and development‖. One can generally categorize such training as on-the-job or off-the-job:


Types of Employee Training

 

Some commentator use a similar term for workplace learning to improve performance: ―training and development‖. One can generally categorize such training as on-the-job or off-the-job:

 

On-the-job training takes place in a normal working situation, using the actual tools, equipment, documents or materials that trainees will use when fully trained. On-the-job training has a general reputation as most effective for vocational work.

 

Off-the-job training takes place away from normal work situations — implying that the employee does not count as a directly productive worker while such training takes place. Off-the-job training has the advantage that it allows people to get away from work and concentrate more thoroughly on the training itself. This type of training has proven more effective in inculcating concepts and ideas.

 

The most frequently used method in smaller organizations that is on the job training. This method of training uses more knowledgeable, experienced and skilled employees, such as mangers, supervisors to give training to less knowledgeable, skilled, and experienced employees. OJT can be delivered in classrooms as well. This type of training often takes place at the work place in informal manner.

 

On the Job Training is characterized by following points

 

It is done on ad-hoc manner with no formal procedure, or content

 

At the start of training, or during the training, no specific goals or objectives are developed Trainers usually have no formal qualification or training experience for training

Training is not carefully planned or prepared

 

The trainer are selected on the basis of technical expertise or area knowledge

 

Formal OJT programs are quite different from informal OJT. These programs are carried out by identifying the employees who are having superior technical knowledge and can effectively use one-to-one interaction technique. The procedure of formal on the job training program is:

 

1.  The participant observes a more experienced, knowledgeable, and skilled trainer (employee)

 

2.  The method, process, and techniques are well discussed before, during and after trainer has explained about performing the tasks

 

3.  When the trainee is prepared, the trainee starts performing on the work place

 

4.  The trainer provides continuing direction of work and feedback

 

5.  The trainee is given more and more work so that he accomplishes the job flawlessly

 

The four techniques for on the job development are:

 

COACHING

 

MENTORING

 

JOB ROTATION

 

JOB INSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE (JIT)

 

1.) Coaching is one of the training methods, which is considered as a corrective method for inadequate performance. According to a survey conducted by International Coach Federation (ICF), more than 4,000 companies are using coach for their executives. These coaches are experts most of the time outside consultants.

 

A coach is the best training plan for the CEO‘s because

 

It is one to one interaction

 

It can be done at the convenience of CEO

 

It can be done on phone, meetings, through e-mails, chat

 

It provides an opportunity to receive feedback from an expert

 

It helps in identifying weaknesses and focus on the area that needs improvement

 

This method best suits for the people at the top because if we see on emotional front, when a person reaches the top, he gets lonely and it becomes difficult to find someone to talk to. It helps in finding out the executive‘s specific developmental needs. The needs can be identified through 60 degree performance reviews.

Procedure of the Coaching

 

The procedure of the coaching is mutually determined by the executive and coach. The procedure is followed by successive counseling and meetings at the executive‘s convenience by the coach.

 

1.  Understand the participant‘s job, the knowledge, skills, and attitudes, and resources required to meet the desired expectation

 

2.  Meet the participant and mutually agree on the objective that has to be achieved

 

3.  Mutually arrive at a plan and schedule

 

4.  At the job, show the participant how to achieve the objectives, observe the performance and then provide feedback

 

5.  Repeat step 4 until performance improves

 

For the people at middle level management, coaching is more likely done by the supervisor; however experts from outside the organization are at times used for up and coming managers. Again, the personalized approach assists the manger focus on definite needs and improvement.

 

2.) Mentoring is an ongoing relationship that is developed between a senior and junior employee. Mentoring provides guidance and clear understanding of how the organization goes to achieve its vision and mission to the junior employee.

 

The meetings are not as structured and regular than in coaching. Executive mentoring is generally done by someone inside the company. The executive can learn a lot from mentoring. By dealing with diverse mentee‘s, the executive is given the chance to grow professionally by developing management skills and learning how to work with people with diverse background, culture, and language and personality types.

 

Executives also have mentors. In cases where the executive is new to the organization, a senior executive could be assigned as a mentor to assist the new executive settled into his role. Mentoring is one of the important methods for preparing them to be future executives. This method allows the mentor to determine what is required to improve mentee‘s performance. Once the mentor identifies the problem, weakness, and the area that needs to be worked upon, the mentor can advise relevant training. The mentor can also provide opportunities to work on special processes and projects that require use of proficiency.

 

Some key points on Mentoring

 

Mentoring focus on attitude development

 

Conducted for management-level employees

 

Mentoring is done by someone inside the company It is one-to-one interaction

 

It helps in identifying weaknesses and focus on the area that needs improvement

 

3.) For the executive, job rotation takes on different perspectives. The executive is usually not simply going to another department. In some vertically integrated organizations, for example, where the supplier is actually part of same organization or subsidiary, job rotation might be to the supplier to see how the business operates from the supplier point of view.

 

Learning how the organization is perceived from the outside broadens the executive‘s outlook on the process of the organization. Or the rotation might be to a foreign office to provide a global perspective. For managers being developed for executive roles, rotation to different functions in the company is regular carried out.

This approach allows the manger to operate in diverse roles and understand the different issues that crop up. If someone is to be a corporate leader, they must have this type of training. A recent study indicated that the single most significant factor that leads to leader‘s achievement was the variety of experiences in different departments, business units, cities, and countries.

 

An organized and helpful way to develop talent for the management or executive level of the organization is job rotation. It is the process of preparing employees at a lower level to replace someone at the next higher level. It is generally done for the designations that are crucial for the effective and efficient functioning of the organization.

 

Some of the major benefits of job rotation are:

 

It provides the employees with opportunities to broaden the horizon of knowledge, skills, and abilities by working in different departments, business units, functions, and countries

 

Identification of Knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) required It determines the areas where improvement is required

Assessment of the employees who have the potential and caliber for filling the position

 

4.) Job Instruction Technique (JIT) uses a strategy with focus on knowledge (factual and procedural), skills and attitudes development.

 

JIT Consists of Four Steps:

 

Plan This step includes a written breakdown of the work to be done because the trainer and the trainee must understand that documentation is must and important for the familiarity of work. A trainer who is aware of the work well is likely to do many things and in the process might miss few things. Therefore, a structured analysis and proper documentation ensures that all the points are covered in the trainingprogram. The second step is to find out what the trainee knows and what training should focus on. Then, the next step is to create a comfortable atmosphere for the trainees‘ i.e. proper orientation program, availing the resources, familiarizing trainee with the training program, etc.

 

Present In this step, trainer provides the synopsis of the job while presenting the participants the different aspects of the work. When the trainer finished, the trainee demonstrates how to do the job and why is that done in that specific manner. Trainee actually demonstrates the procedure while emphasizing the key points and safety instructions.


Figure 6.1 : Steps in JIT

 

Trial This step actually a kind of rehearsal step, in which trainee tries to perform the work and the trainer is able to provide instant feedback. In this step, the focus is on improving the method of instruction because a trainer considers that any error if occurring may be a function of training not the trainee. This step allows the trainee to see the after effects of using an incorrect method. The trainer then helps the trainee by questioning and guiding to identify the correct procedure.

Follow-up In this step, the trainer checks the trainee‘s job frequently after the training program is over to prevent bad work habits from developing. There are various methods of training, which can be divided in to cognitive and behavioral methods. Trainers need to understand the pros and cons of each method, also its impact on trainees keeping their background and skills in mind before giving training.

 

OFF THE JOB TRAINING –

 

There are many management development techniques that an employee can take in off the job. The few popular methods are:

 

SENSITIVITY TRAINING

 

TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS

 

STRAIGHT LECTURES/ LECTURES

 

SIMULATION EXERCISES

 

1.) Sensitivity Training is about making people understand about themselves and others reasonably, which is done by developing in them social sensitivity and behavioral flexibility.

 

Social sensitivity in one word is empathy. It is ability of an individual to sense what others feeland think from their own point of view. Behavioral flexibility is ability to behave suitably in light of understanding.

 

Sensitivity Training Program requires three steps:

 

Unfreezing the Old Values –

 

It requires that the trainees become aware of the inadequacy of the old values. This can be done when the trainee faces dilemma in which his old values is not able to provide proper guidance. The first stepconsists of a small procedure:

 

An unstructured group of 10-15 people is formed.

 

Unstructured group without any objective looks to the trainer for its guidance But the trainer refuses to provide guidance and assume leadership

Soon, the trainees are motivated to resolve the uncertainty

 

Then, they try to form some hierarchy. Some try assume leadership role which may not be liked by other trainees

 

Then, they started realizing that what they desire to do and realize the alternative ways of dealing with the situation


Figure 6.2 Procedure of Sensitivity Training

 

Development of New Values – With the trainer‘s support, trainees begin to examine their interpersonal behavior and giving each other feedback. The reasoning of the feedbacks are discussed which motivates trainees to experiment with range of new behaviors and values. This process constitutes the second step in the change process of the development of these values.

Refreezing the new ones – This step depends upon how much opportunity the trainees get to practice their new behaviors and values at their work place.

 

2.) Transactional Analysis provides trainees with a realistic and useful method for analyzing and understanding the behavior of others. In every social interaction, there is a motivation provided by one person and a reaction to that motivation given by another person. This motivation reaction relationship between two persons is a transaction.

 

Transactional analysis can be done by the ego states of an individual. An ego state is a system of feelings accompanied by a related set of behaviors. There are basically three ego states:

 

Child: It is a collection of recordings in the brain of an individual of behaviors, attitudes, and impulses which come to her naturally from her own understanding as a child. The characteristics of this ego are to be spontaneous, intense, unconfident, reliant, probing, anxious, etc. Verbal clues that a person is operating from its child state are the use of words like ―I guess‖, ―I suppose‖, etc. and non verbal clues like, giggling, coyness, silent, attention seeking etc.

 

Parent: It is a collection of recordings in the brain of an individual of behaviors, attitudes, and impulses imposed on her in her childhood from various sources such as, social, parents, friends, etc. The characteristics of this ego are to be overprotective, isolated, rigid, bossy, etc. Verbal clues that a person is operating from its parent states are the use of words like, always, should, never, etc and non-verbal clues such as, raising eyebrows, pointing an accusing finger at somebody, etc.


 

Adult: It is a collection of reality testing, rational behavior, decision making, etc. A person in this ego state verifies, updates the data which she has received from the other two states. It is a shift from the taught and felt concepts to tested concepts. All of us evoke behavior from one ego state which is responded to by the other person from any of these three states.

 

3.) Lecture is telling someone about something. Lecture is given to enhance the knowledge of listener or to give him the theoretical aspect of a topic. Training is basically incomplete without lecture. When the trainer begins the training session by telling the aim, goal, agenda, processes, or methods that will be used in training that means the trainer is using the lecture method. It is difficult to imagine trainingwithout lecture format. There are some variations in Lecture method. The variation here means that some forms of lectures are interactive while some are not.

 

Straight Lecture: Straight lecture method consists of presenting information, which the trainee attempts to absorb. In this method, the trainer speaks to a group about a topic. However, it does not involve any kind of interaction between the trainer and the trainees. A lecture may also take the form of printed text, such as books, notes, etc. The difference between the straight lecture and the printed material is the trainer‘s intonation, control of speed, body language, and visual image of the trainer. The trainer in case of straight lecture can decide to vary from the training script, based on the signals from the trainees, whereas same material in print is restricted to what is printed. A good lecture consists of introduction of the topic, purpose of the lecture, and priorities and preferences of the order in which the topic will be covered. Some of the main features of lecture method are:

 

Inability to identify and correct misunderstandings Less expensive

 

Can be reached large number of people at once Knowledge building exercise

 

Less effective because lectures require long periods of trainee inactivity

 

4.) Games and Simulations are structured and sometimes unstructured, that are usually played for enjoyment sometimes are used for training purposes as an educational tool. Training games and simulations are different from work as they are designed to reproduce or simulate events, circumstances, processes that take place in trainees‘ job.

 

A Training Game is defined as spirited activity or exercise in which trainees compete with each other according to the defined set of rules. Simulation is creating computer versions of real-life games. Simulation is about imitating or making judgment or opining how events might occur in a real situation. It can entail intricate numerical modeling, role playing without the support of technology, or combinations. Training games and simulations are now seen as an effective tool for training because its key components are:

 

Challenge Rules

Interactivity

 

These three components are quite essential when it comes to learning. Some of the examples of this technique are:


Trainees can therefore experience these events, processes, games in a controlled setting where they can develop knowledge, skills, and attitudes or can find out concepts that will improve their performance. The various methods that come under Games and Simulations are:

 

BEHAVIOR-MODELLING

 

BUSINESS GAMES

CASE STUDIES

 

EQUIPMENT STIMULATORS

 

IN-BASKET TECHNIQUE

 

ROLE PLAYS

 

Objectives and Process of Employee Training

 

The training design process refers to a systematic approach for developing training programs. It includes the seven steps in this process. Training is one of the most profitable investments an organization can make. No matter what business or industry you are in the steps for an effective training process are the same and may be adapted anywhere. If you have ever thought about developing a training program within your organization consider the following four basic training steps. You will find that all four of these steps are mutually necessary for any training program to be effective and efficient.

 

Step1 is to conduct a needs assessment, which is necessary to identify whether training is needed. This step identifies activities to justify an investment for training. The techniques necessary for the data collection are surveys, observations, interviews, and customer comment cards. Several examples of an analysis outlining specific training needs are customer dissatisfaction, low morale, low productivity, and high turnover.

 

The objective in establishing a needs analysis is to find out the answers to the following questions:

 

―Why‖ is training needed?

 

―What‖ type of training is needed? ―When‖ is the training needed? ―Where‖ is the training needed?

―Who‖ needs the training? and ―Who‖ will conduct the training? ―How‖ will the training be performed?

 

By determining training needs, an organization can decide what specific knowledge, skills, and attitudes are needed to improve the employee‘s performance in accordance with the company‘s standards.

 

The needs analysis is the starting point for all training. The primary objective of all training is to improve individual and organizational performance. Establishing a needs analysis is, and should always be the first step of the training process.

 

Step 2 is to ensure that employees have the motivation and basic skills necessary to master training content. This step establishes the development of current job descriptions and standards and procedures. Job descriptions should be clear and concise and may serve as a major training tool for the identification of guidelines. Once the job description is completed, a complete list of standards and procedures should be established from each responsibility outlined in the job description. This will standardize the necessary guidelines for any future training.

 

Step 3 is to create a learning environment that has the features necessary for learning to occur. This step is responsible for the instruction and delivery of the training program. Once you have designated your trainers, the training technique must be decided. One-on-one training, on-the-job training, group training, seminars, and workshops are the most popular methods.

 

Before presenting a training session, make sure you have a thorough understanding of the following characteristics of an effective trainer. The trainer should have:

 

-      A desire to teach the subject being taught.

 

-      A working knowledge of the subject being taught.

 

-      An ability to motivate participants to ―want‖ to learn.

 

-      A good sense of humour.

 

-      A dynamic appearance and good posture.

 

-      A strong passion for their topic.

 

-      A strong compassion towards their participants.

 

-      Appropriate audio/visual equipment to enhance the training session.

 

For a training program to be successful, the trainer should be conscious of several essential elements, including a controlled environment, good planning, the use of various training methods, good communication skills and trainee participation.

 

Step 4 is to ensure that trainees apply the training content to their jobs.

 

This step will determine how effective and profitable your training program has been. Methods for evaluation are pre-and post- surveys of customer comments cards, the establishment of a cost/benefit analysis outlining your expenses and returns, and an increase in customer satisfaction and profits. The reason for an evaluation system is simple. The evaluations of training programs are without a doubt the most important step in the training process. It is this step that will indicate the effectiveness of both the training as well as the trainer.

 

There are several obvious benefits for evaluating a training program. First, evaluations will provide feedback on the trainer‘s performance, allowing them to improve themselves for future programs. Second, evaluations will indicate its cost-effectiveness. Third, evaluations are an efficient way to determine the overall effectiveness of the training program for the employees as well as the organization.

 

The importance of the evaluation process after the training is critical. Without it, the trainer does not have a true indication of the effectiveness of the training. Consider this information the next time you need to evaluate your training program. You will be amazed with the results.

 

The need for training your employees has never been greater. As business and industry continues to grow, more jobs will become created and available. Customer demands, employee morale, employee productivity, and employee turnover as well as the current economic realities of a highly competitive workforce are just some of the reasons for establishing and implementing training in an organization. To be successful, all training must receive support from the top management as well as from the middle and supervisory levels of management. It is a team effort and must be implemented by all members of the organization to be fully successful.

 

Advantages of On the Job Training Methods

 

On the job training method has the following advantages that can be considered:

 

Generally most cost-effective

 

Employees are actually productive Opportunity to learn whilst doing Training alongside real colleagues.

Training can be delivered on time and at the optimum time.

 

The trainee will have the good opportunities to practice and implement. The trainee will have feedbacks.

 

Trainee builds confidence by working with own speed and productivity.

 

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