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Chapter: Mechanical : Human Resource Management(HRM) : Training And Executive Development

Techniques for on the job development

The four techniques for on the job development are: 1.COACHING 2.MENTORING 3.JOB ROTATION 4.JOB INSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE (JIT)

The four techniques for on the job development are:







1.) Coaching is one of the training methods, which is considered as a corrective method for inadequate performance. According to a survey conducted by International Coach Federation (ICF), more than 4,000 companies are using coach for their executives. These coaches are experts most of the time outside consultants.


A coach is the best training plan for the CEO‘sbecause


It is one to one interaction


It can be done at the convenience of CEO


It can be done on phone, meetings, through e-mails, chat


It provides an opportunity to receive feedback from an expert


It helps in identifying weaknesses and focus on the area that needs improvement


This method best suits for the people at the top because if we see on emotional front, when a person reaches the top, he gets lonely and it becomes difficult to find someone to talk to. It helps in finding out the executive‘sspecific developmental needs. The needs can be identified through 60 degree performance reviews.

Procedure of the Coaching


The procedure of the coaching is mutually determined by the executive and coach. The procedure is followed by successive counseling and meetings at the executive‘sconvenience by the coach.


1.  Understand the participant‘sjob, the knowledge, skills, and attitudes, and resources required to meet the desired expectation


2.  Meet the participant and mutually agree on the objective that has to be achieved


3.  Mutually arrive at a plan and schedule


4.  At the job, show the participant how to achieve the objectives, observe the performance and then provide feedback


5.  Repeat step 4 until performance improves


For the people at middle level management, coaching is more likely done by the supervisor; however experts from outside the organization are at times used for up and coming managers. Again, the personalized approach assists the manger focus on definite needs and improvement.


2.) Mentoring is an ongoing relationship that is developed between a senior and junior employee. Mentoring provides guidance and clear understanding of how the organization goes to achieve its vision and mission to the junior employee.


The meetings are not as structured and regular than in coaching. Executive mentoring is generally done by someone inside the company. The executive can learn a lot from mentoring. By dealing with diverse mentee‘s, the executive is given the chance to grow professionally by developing management skills and learning how to work with people with diverse background, culture, and language and personality types.


Executives also have mentors. In cases where the executive is new to the organization, a senior executive could be assigned as a mentor to assist the new executive settled into his role. Mentoring is one of the important methods for preparing them to be future executives. This method allows the mentor to determine what is required to improve mentee‘sperformance. Once the mentor identifies the problem, weakness, and the area that needs to be worked upon, the mentor can advise relevant training. The mentor can also provide opportunities to work on special processes and projects that require use of proficiency.


Some key points on Mentoring


Mentoring focus on attitude development


Conducted for management-level employees


Mentoring is done by someone inside the company It is one-to-one interaction


It helps in identifying weaknesses and focus on the area that needs improvement


3.) For the executive, job rotation takes on different perspectives. The executive is usually not simply going to another department. In some vertically integrated organizations, for example, where the supplier is actually part of same organization or subsidiary, job rotation might be to the supplier to see how the business operates from the supplier point of view.


Learning how the organization is perceived from the outside broadens the executive‘soutlook on the process of the organization. Or the rotation might be to a foreign office to provide a global perspective. For managers being developed for executive roles, rotation to different functions in the company is regular carried out.

This approach allows the manger to operate in diverse roles and understand the different issues that crop up. If someone is to be a corporate leader, they must have this type of training. A recent study indicated that the single most significant factor that leads to leader‘sachievement was the variety of experiences in different departments, business units, cities, and countries.


An organized and helpful way to develop talent for the management or executive level of the organization is job rotation. It is the process of preparing employees at a lower level to replace someone at the next higher level. It is generally done for the designations that are crucial for the effective and efficient functioning of the organization.


Some of the major benefits of job rotation are:


It provides the employees with opportunities to broaden the horizon of knowledge, skills, and abilities by working in different departments, business units, functions, and countries


Identification of Knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) required It determines the areas where improvement is required


Assessment of the employees who have the potential and caliber for filling the position


4.) Job Instruction Technique (JIT) uses a strategy with focus on knowledge (factual and procedural), skills and attitudes development.


JIT Consists of Four Steps:


Plan This step includes a written breakdown of the work to be done because the trainer and the trainee must understand that documentation is must and important for the familiarity of work. A trainer who is aware of the work well is likely to do many things and in the process might miss few things. Therefore, a structured analysis and proper documentation ensures that all the points are covered in the trainingprogram. The second step is to find out what the trainee knows and what training should focus on. Then, the next step is to create a comfortable atmosphere for the trainees‘i.e. proper orientation program, availing the resources, familiarizing trainee with the training program, etc.


Present In this step, trainer provides the synopsis of the job while presenting the participants the different aspects of the work. When the trainer finished, the trainee demonstrates how to do the job and why is that done in that specific manner. Trainee actually demonstrates the procedure while emphasizing the key points and safety instructions.

Figure 6.1 : Steps in JIT


Trial This step actually a kind of rehearsal step, in which trainee tries to perform the work and the trainer is able to provide instant feedback. In this step, the focus is on improving the method of instruction because a trainer considers that any error if occurring may be a function of training not the trainee. This step allows the trainee to see the after effects of using an incorrect method. The trainer then helps the trainee by questioning and guiding to identify the correct procedure.

Follow-up In this step, the trainer checks the trainee‘sjob frequently after the training program is over to prevent bad work habits from developing. There are various methods of training, which can be divided in to cognitive and behavioral methods. Trainers need to understand the pros and cons of each method, also its impact on trainees keeping their background and skills in mind before giving training.


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Mechanical : Human Resource Management(HRM) : Training And Executive Development : Techniques for on the job development |

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