OFF THE JOB TRAINING
There are many management development techniques that an employee can take in off the job. The few popular methods are:
3.STRAIGHT LECTURES/ LECTURES
1.) Sensitivity Training is about making people understand about themselves and others reasonably, which is done by developing in them social sensitivity and behavioral flexibility.
Social sensitivity in one word is empathy. It is ability of an individual to sense what others feeland think from their own point of view. Behavioral flexibility is ability to behave suitably in light of understanding.
Sensitivity Training Program requires three steps:
Unfreezing the Old Values –
It requires that the trainees become aware of the inadequacy of the old values. This can be done when the trainee faces dilemma in which his old values is not able to provide proper guidance. The first stepconsists of a small procedure:
An unstructured group of 10-15 people is formed.
Unstructured group without any objective looks to the trainer for its guidance But the trainer refuses to provide guidance and assume leadership
Soon, the trainees are motivated to resolve the uncertainty
Then, they try to form some hierarchy. Some try assume leadership role which may not be liked by other trainees
Then, they started realizing that what they desire to do and realize the alternative ways of dealing with the situation
Figure 6.2 Procedure of Sensitivity Training
Development of New Values –With the trainer‘ssupport, trainees begin to examine their interpersonal behavior and giving each other feedback. The reasoning of the feedbacks are discussed which motivates trainees to experiment with range of new behaviors and values. This process constitutes the second step in the change process of the development of these values.
Refreezing the new ones –This step depends upon how much opportunity the trainees get to practice their new behaviors and values at their work place.
2.) Transactional Analysis provides trainees with a realistic and useful method for analyzing and understanding the behavior of others. In every social interaction, there is a motivation provided by one person and a reaction to that motivation given by another person. This motivation reaction relationship between two persons is a transaction.
Transactional analysis can be done by the ego states of an individual. An ego state is a system of feelings accompanied by a related set of behaviors. There are basically three ego states:
Child: It is a collection of recordings in the brain of an individual of behaviors, attitudes, and impulses which come to her naturally from her own understanding as a child. The characteristics of this ego are to be spontaneous, intense, unconfident, reliant, probing, anxious, etc. Verbal clues that a person is operating from its child state are the use of words like ―Iguess‖,―Isuppose‖,tc. and non verbal clues like, giggling, coyness, silent, attention seeking etc.
Parent: It is a collection of recordings in the brain of an individual of behaviors, attitudes, and impulses imposed on her in her childhood from various sources such as, social, parents, friends, etc. The characteristics of this ego are to be overprotective, isolated, rigid, bossy, etc. Verbal clues that a person is operating from its parent states are the use of words like, always, should, never, etc and non-verbal clues such as, raising eyebrows, pointing an accusing finger at somebody, etc.
Adult: It is a collection of reality testing, rational behavior, decision making, etc. A person in this ego state verifies, updates the data which she has received from the other two states. It is a shift from the taught and felt concepts to tested concepts. All of us evoke behavior from one ego state which is responded to by the other person from any of these three states.
3.) Lecture is telling someone about something. Lecture is given to enhance the knowledge of listener or to give him the theoretical aspect of a topic. Training is basically incomplete without lecture. When the trainer begins the training session by telling the aim, goal, agenda, processes, or methods that will be used in training that means the trainer is using the lecture method. It is difficult to imagine trainingwithout lecture format. There are some variations in Lecture method. The variation here means that some forms of lectures are interactive while some are not.
Straight Lecture: Straight lecture method consists of presenting information, which the trainee attempts to absorb. In this method, the trainer speaks to a group about a topic. However, it does not involve any kind of interaction between the trainer and the trainees. A lecture may also take the form of printed text, such as books, notes, etc. The difference between the straight lecture and the printed material is the trainer‘sintonation, control of speed, body language, and visual image of the trainer. The trainer in case of straight lecture can decide to vary from the training script, based on the signals from the trainees, whereas same material in print is restricted to what is printed. A good lecture consists of introduction of the topic, purpose of the lecture, and priorities and preferences of the order in which the topic will be covered. Some of the main features of lecture method are:
Inability to identify and correct misunderstandings Less expensive
Can be reached large number of people at once Knowledge building exercise
Less effective because lectures require long periods of trainee inactivity
4.) Games and Simulations are structured and sometimes unstructured, that are usually played for enjoyment sometimes are used for training purposes as an educational tool. Training games and simulations are different from work as they are designed to reproduce or simulate events, circumstances, processes that take place in trainees‘job.
A Training Game is defined as spirited activity or exercise in which trainees compete with each other according to the defined set of rules. Simulation is creating computer versions of real-life games. Simulation is about imitating or making judgment or opining how events might occur in a real situation. It can entail intricate numerical modeling, role playing without the support of technology, or combinations. Training games and simulations are now seen as an effective tool for training because its key components are:
These three components are quite essential when it comes to learning. Some of the examples of this technique are:
Trainees can therefore experience these events, processes, games in a controlled setting where they can develop knowledge, skills, and attitudes or can find out concepts that will improve their performance. The various methods that come under Games and Simulations are:
BEHAVIOR-MODELLING BUSINESS GAMES
EQUIPMENT STIMULATORS IN-BASKET TECHNIQUE