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Chapter: 12th Microbiology : Practical Experiment Manual

Spotters: Slide

6. Cyst of Entamoeba histolytica 7. Penicillium species 8. Microfilariae 9. Egg of Ascaris lumbricoides 10. Heterocysts of Nostoc 11. Acid fast bacilli

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6. Cyst of Entamoeba histolytica


• Cyst is one of the three forms of entamoeba histolytica

• A mature cyst is a quadrinucleate spherical bod

• Mature cysts are passed in the stool of infected person

• Direct examination of wet mount of stool for cysts is diagnostic of intestinal amoebiasis

 

7. Penicillium species


• Colony of penicillium are initially white and fluffy and later produce pigmented spores and turn into shades of green or blue green

• Hyphae are hyaline and septate

• Condiophores are long, give rise to branching phialids

• Phialids branch and give the appearance of brush or penicillins

They produce sterigmata bearing chain of conidia (spores) which are oval or spherical and measure 1-2micrometer.

 

8. Microfilariae


• Filariasis is caused by nematodes (roundworms) like Wuchereria bancrofti that inhabit the lymphatics and subcutaneous tissues.

• The female worms release the firsstage larvae called microfilariae, which are detected in the peripheral blood.

• Identification of microfilariae by microscopic examination is the most practical diagnostic procedure.

• The blood sample can be a thick smear, stained with Giemsa.

• The larva measures about 290microns in length and 6-7micron in breath.

 

9. Egg of Ascaris lumbricoides


• These are passed in stool of the infected host.

• Brownish due to bile pigment.

• Fertilised eggs are rounded and have a thick shell (chitinous).

• Unfertilised eggs are elongated and larger than fertile eggs.

 • When ingested through water or contaminated food by human it causes Ascariasis.

• Microscopic identification of eggs in the stool is the most common method for diagnosing intestinal ascariasis.

 

10. Heterocysts of Nostoc


• Heterocysts are specialized structures having thick cell wall formed in some filamentous blue green algae like Nostoc, Anabena.

• They may be terminal or found in between the vegetative cells attached to it by means of pores.

• They are sites of atmospheric nitrogen fixation.

• They serve as a store house of food material.

 

11. Acid fast bacilli


• Acid fast bacilli contains mycolic acid in their cell walls hence do not get stained easily, however once stained cannot be decolourised easily.

• Special method like Ziehl- Neelson’s Carbol fuchsin is used to stain acid fast bacilli.

• The acid- fast bacilli are stained red in colour while the non acid fast cells appear blue when counterstained with methylene blue.

• Mycobacterium tuberculosis is and acid fast bacilli.

 

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