The top layers of soil contain humus and mineral salts, which are vital for the growth of plants. Removal of upper layer of soil by wind and water is called soil erosion. Soil erosion causes a significant loss of humus, nutrients and decrease the fertility of soil.
Agents of soil erosion are high velocity of wind, air currents, flowing water, landslide, human activities (deforestation, farming and mining) and overgrazing by cattle.
· Retain vegetation cover, so that soil is not exposed.
· Cattle grazing should be controlled.
· Crop rotation and soil management improve soil organic matter.
· Runoff water should be stored in the catchment.
· Reforestation, terracing and contour ploughing.
· Wind speed can be controlled by planting trees in form of a shelter belt.