Untreated sewage or
wastewater generated from domestic and industrial process is the leading
polluter of water sources in India. Sewage water results in agricultural
contamination and environmental degradation.
Domestic purpose or household activities
Dye and textile industries
Sugar and breweries industries
Paper and pulp industries
wastewater treatment methods involve the following steps (a) Pre-screening
(b) Aeration (c) Sludge Management and (d) Water Reuse.
Pre-screening: Wastewater generated
from domestic and industrial activities is screened to remove soil and
Aeration : Screened wastewater is
then pumped to an aeration tank. Here the microbial contaminants are
removed by the biological degradation that occurs in the presence of air.
Sedimentation process: In this process, the
solid particles in suspension form are allowed to settle. The particles that
settle out from the suspension is known as sludge.
Sludge removal : The sludge generated
by the degradation process is transferred periodically from the tank for
Disinfection: Chlorination and ultraviolet
(UV) radiation of treated water is required to remove any microorganism
Water recycling: The water will then be
supplied for domestic or industrial purposes.