SITE PLANNING / DESIGN PROCESS
Planning and design occur as a process, by which we mean that they follow a logical sequence of actions or events that must be carried out to arrive at a viable solution. It is a multi-disciplinary problem -solving operation often involving architects, landscape architects and engineers, and frequently may require input from physical scientist as well to address environment issues. It require a logical objectives for some steps, but also allows room for subjective design interpretation at others.
There are several notable models from which we can draw to understand the basic components of the site planning and design process. Kevin Lynch outlines an eight-stage site planning cycle (see Fig. 1) that includes:
1. Defining the problem
2. Programming and analysis of site and user
3. Schematic design and the preliminary cost estimate
4. Developed design and detailed costing
5. Contract documents
6. Bidding and contracting
8. Occupation and management (Lynch 11)
John Simonds outlines a six-phase planning-design process that applies to architecture, landscape architecture, and engineering, This process (see Fig.
2), is organized as follows:
There are many variation on these models. They differ essentially in the breakdown of component phases and some, such as Simonds, extend the process to include preliminary contractual agreement and post-construction operations.
1. Research and Analysis Phases:
In this process, the designer can use this general goal statement plus the identification of the site to begin collecting information relevant to the site and the surroundings area and compiling it in a form in which it can be mapped. This data is then
analyzed in terms of its implications for development of the site for stated purpose.
2. Program Development:
The development of the program is the bridging step between the analysis and
the synthesis or design phases.
3. Design Phase
a. Conceptual Design
Conceptual design begins with functional diagram in which we explore the relationships of program elements and activities. This is first done as 'ideal' or non-site
related diagrams to establish the best abstract relationships among the various components of the project program. This is essentially a diagrammatic exploration in which the designer may move through a series of alternative arrangements until he/she achieves a solution which maximizes the positive relationships and minimizes the number of conflicts.
c. Site Plan / Master Plan
Presuming that the project is to go forward, the designer refines the development of the preliminary plan, giving precise form, dimension and indication of materials to the proposed elements. In other words, he/she precisely locates buildings and paved surfaces, delineates ground forms and planted areas, and indicates necessary utilities.
FORMATION OF HOUSING PROJECT
The housing projects are formulated undo the following five categories
1. Detached / individual house
2. Semidetached houses (Twin houses)
3. Row / Line houses
4. Flats / Apartments
5. Sky scrapers / High rise building