Home | | Electrical Machines II | Shaped Pole Starting - Single Phase Induction Motor

# Shaped Pole Starting - Single Phase Induction Motor

The motor consists of a yoke to which salient poles are fitted as shown in Fig: 4.14(a) and it has a squirrel cage type rotor.

SHAPED POLE STARTING

The motor consists of a yoke to which salient poles are fitted as shown in Fig: 4.14(a) and it has a squirrel cage type rotor.

A shaded pole made of laminated sheets has a slot cut across the lamination at about one third the distance from the edge of the pole.

Around the smaller portion of the pole, a short-circuited copper ring is placed which is called the shading coil, and this part of the pole is known as the shaded part of the pole. The remaining part of the pole is called the unshaded part which is clearly shown in Fig: (b).

Around the poles, exciting coils are placed to which an AC supply is connected. When AC supply is effected to the exciting coil, the magnetic axis shifts from the unshaded part of the pole to the shaded part as will be explained in details in the next paragraph. This shifting of axis is equivalent to the physical movement of the pole.

This magnetic axis, which is moving, cuts the rotor conductors and hence, a rotational torque is developed in the rotor.

By this torque the rotor starts rotating in the direction of the shifting of the magnetic axis that is from the unshaded part to the shaded part.

## THE MAGNETIC FLUX SHIFTING

As the shaded coil is of thick copper, it will have very low resistance but as it is embedded in the iron case, it will have high inductance. When the exciting winding is connected to an AC supply, a sine wave current passes through it.

Let us consider the positive half cycle of the AC current as shown in Fig:

When the current raises from "Zero" Value of point "0" to a point "a" the change in current is very rapid (Fast). Hence, it reduces an emf in the shaded coil on the basis of Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction.

The induced emf in the shaded coil produces a current which, in turn, produces a flux in accordance with Lenz Law. This induced flux opposes the main flux in the shaded portion and reduces the main flux in that area to a minimum value as shown in Fig:.

This makes the magnetic axis to be in the centre of the unshaded portion as shown by the arrow in part of Fig:. On the other hand as shown in part 2 of 3 when the current raises from point "a" to point "b" the change in current is slow the induced emf and resulting current in the shading coil is minimum and the main flux is able to pass through the shade portion.

This makes the magnetic axis to be shifted to the centre of the whole pole as shown in by the arrow in part 2 of Fig:

In the next instant, as shown in part 3 of Fig:. When the current falls from "b" to "c" the change in current is fast but the change of current is from maximum to minimum.

Hence a large current is induced in the shading ring which opposes the diminishing main flux, thereby increasing the flux density in the area of the shaded part. This makes the magnetic axis to shift to the right portion of the shaded part as shown by the arrow in part.

From the above explanation it is clear the magnetic axis shifts from the unshaded part to the shaded part which is more or less a physical rotary movement of the poles.

Simple motors of this type cannot be reversed. Specially designed shaded pole motors have been constructed for reversing operations. Two such types:

a.                                                                            The double set of shading coils method

b.                                                                           The double set of exciting winding method.

Shaded pole motors are built commercially in very small sizes, varying approximately from 1/250 HP to 1/6 HP. Although such motors are simple in construction and cheap, there are certain disadvantages with these motor as stated below:

Low starting torque.

Low efficiency.

## APPLICATIONS

Record players

Fans

Hair driers.

Study Material, Lecturing Notes, Assignment, Reference, Wiki description explanation, brief detail
Electrical machines : Single Phase Induction Motor and Special Machines : Shaped Pole Starting - Single Phase Induction Motor |