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Chapter: Electrical machines - Single Phase Induction Motor and Special Machines

Repulsion starting - Single Phase Induction Motor: Construction, Working and Characteristics

This type of starting need a wound rotor with brush and commutator arrangement like a dc armature Fig 4.13(a). The starting operation is based on the principle of repulsion and hence the name.

REPULSION STARTING

 

 

 

This type of starting need a wound rotor with brush and commutator arrangement like a dc armature Fig 4.13(a). The starting operation is based on the principle of repulsion and hence the name.

 

 

 

CONSTRUCTION AND WORKING

 

 

 

Repulsion starting, though complicated in construction and higher in cost, are still used in certain industries due to their excellent starting torque, low starting current, ability to withstand long spell of starting currents to drive heavy loads and their easy method of reversal of direction.

 

Now there is a condition that the rotor north pole will be repelled by the main north pole and the rotor south pole is repelled by the main south pole, so that a torque could be developed in the rotor. Now due to the repulsion action between the stator and the rotor poles, the rotor will start rotating in a clockwise direction. As the motor torque is due to repulsion action, this starting method is named as repulsion starting.


To change the direction of rotation of this motor, the brush axis needs to be shifted from the right side as shown in Fig: (b) to the left side of the main axis in a counter clockwise direction as shown in Fig: (b).

 

 

 

CHARACTERISTICS

 

 

 

The torque developed in a repulsion motor will depend upon the amount of brush shaft as shown in Fig: 4.13 (b), whereas the direction of shift decides the direction of rotation.

 

Further, the speed depends upon the amount of brush shift and the magnitude of the load also on the relationship between the torque and brush-position angle.

 

Though the starting torque from 250 to 400% of the full load torque, the speed will be dangerously high during light loads. This is due to the fact that the speed of the repulsion motor start does not depend on frequency or number of poles but depends upon the repulsion principle.

Further, there is a tendency of sparking in the brushes at heavy loads, and the PF will be poor at low speeds. Hence the conventional repulsion motor start is not much popular.

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