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The MAC layer has to fulfill several tasks. First of all, it has to control medium access, but it can also offer support for roaming, authentication, and power conservation. The basic services provided by the MAC layer are the mandatory asynchronous data service and an optional time-bounded service. While 802.11 only offers the asynchronous service in ad-hoc network mode, both service types can be offered using an infrastructure-based network together with the access point coordinating medium access. The asynchronous service supports broadcast and multi-cast packets, and packet exchange is based on a ‗best effort‘ model, i.e., no delay bounds can be given for transmission. The following three basic access mechanisms have been defined for IEEE 802.11: the mandatory basic method based on a version of CSMA/CA, an optional method avoiding the hidden terminal problem, and finally a contention- free polling method for time-bounded service. The first two methods are also summarized as distributed coordination function (DCF), the third method is called point coordination function (PCF). DCF only offers asynchronous service, while PCF offers both asynchronous and time-bounded service but needs an access point to control medium access and to avoid contention. The MAC mechanisms are also called distributed foundation wireless medium access control (DFWMAC). For all access methods, several parameters for controlling the waiting time before medium access are important. Figure 7.9 shows the three different parameters that define the priorities of medium access. The values of the parameters depend on the PHY and are defined in relation to a slot time. Slot time is derived from the medium propagation delay, transmitter delay, and other PHY dependent parameters. Slot time is 50 μs for FHSS and 20 μs for DSSS. The medium, as shown, can be busy or idle (which is detected by the CCA). If the medium is busy this can be due to data frames or other control frames. During a contention phase several nodes try to access the medium.
Short inter-frame spacing (SIFS):
The shortest waiting time for medium access (so the highest priority) is defined for short control messages, such as acknowledgements of data packets or polling responses. For DSSS SIFS is 10 μs and for FHSS it is 28 μs.
PCF inter-frame spacing (PIFS):
A waiting time between DIFS and SIFS (and thus a medium priority) is used for a time-bounded service. An access point polling other nodes only has to wait PIFS for medium access. PIFS is defined as SIFS plus one slot time.
DCF inter-frame spacing (DIFS):
This parameter denotes the longest waiting time and has the lowest priority for medium access. This waiting time is used for asynchronous data service within a contention period. DIFS is defined as SIFS plus two slot times.
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