Rotation of Crops
Crop rotation is planting a series of
different crops in the same field following a defined order. Mono cropping and
mixed cropping are the two methods used in crop production. Mono cropping is
the repeated planting of the same crop in the same field year after year. Mixed
cropping is the cultivation of two or more than two crops simultaneously on the
same land without any pattern.
Crop rotation has many advantages.
Many crops like legumes may have positive effects on succeeding crops in the
rotation, leading to greater production over all. A shallow rooted grain crop,
deep rooted cash crop and restorative crop (legume crop) should be included in
the rotation for maintaining soil productivity. The leguminous crops should
follow non leguminous crops to have atmospheric nitrogen to succeeding crops.
It helps in maintaining a better balance of nutrients in the soil. Weed problem
is less in intercropping system compared to their sole crops.
Leguminous plants have
symbiotic relation with the Rhizobium
bacteria found in the root nodules of these plants. These plants have the
ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen in their roots with the help of these
bacteria. The fruits of this plant are called legumes. Examples of legumes
include alfalfa, clover, peas, beans, lentils, lupins, mesquite, carob, soy,
and peanuts. These plants are used in crop rotation to multiply soil nitrogen.