Reporting review results.
Several information-rich items result from technical reviews. These items are listed below. The items can be bundled together in a single report or distributed over several distinct reports. Review polices should indicate the formats of the reports required. The review reports should contain the following information.
1. For inspections—the group checklist with all items covered and comments relating to each item.
2. For inspections—a status, or summary, report (described below) signed by all participants.
A list of defects found, and classified by type and frequency. Each defect should be crossreferenced to the line, pages, or figure in the reviewed document where it occurs. 4. Review metric data (see Section 10.7 for a discussion).
The inspection report on the reviewed item is a document signed by all the reviewers. It may contain a summary of defects and problems found and a list of review attendees, and some review measures such as the time period for the review and the total number of major/minor defects.
The reviewers are responsible for the quality of the information in the written report . There are several status options available to the review participants on this report. These are:
1. Accept: The reviewed item is accepted in its present form or with minor rework required that does not need further verification.
2. Conditional accept: The reviewed item needs rework and will be accepted after the moderator has checked and verified the rework.
3.Reinspect: Considerable rework must be done to the reviewed item.
The inspection needs to be repeated when the rework is done. Before signing their name to such a inspection report reviewers need to be sure that all checklist items have been addressed, all defects recorded, and all quality issues discussed. This is important for several reasons. Very often when a document has passed an inspection it is viewed as a baseline item for configuration management, and any changes from this baseline item need approval from the configuration management board. In addition, the successful passing of a review usually indicates a project milestone has been passed, a certain level of quality has been achieved, and the project has made progress toward meeting its objectives. A milestone meeting is usually held, and clients are notified of the completion of the milestone.
If the software item is given a conditional accept or a reinspect, a follow-up period occurs where the authors must address all the items on the problem/defect list. The moderator reviews the rework in the case of a conditional accept. Another inspection meeting is required to reverify the items in the case of a ―reinspect ‖ decision. For an inspection type of review, one completeness or exit criterion requires that all identified problems be resolved. Other criteria may be required by the organization. In addition to the summary report, other outputs of an inspection include a defect report and an inspection report. These reports are vital for collecting and organizing review measurement data. The defect report contains a description of the defects, the defect type, severity level, and the location of each defect. On the report the defects can be organized so that their type and occurrence rate is easy to determine. IEEE standards suggest that the inspection report contain vital data such as :
(i) number of participants in the review;
(ii) the duration of the meeting;
(iii) size of the item being reviewed (usually LOC or number of pages);
(iv)total preparation time for the inspection team;
(v) status of the reviewed item;
(vi)estimate of rework effort and the estimated date for completion of the rework.
This data will help an organization to evaluate the effectiveness of the review process and to make improvements.The IEEE has recommendations for defect classes . The classes are based on the reviewed software items‘ conformance to:
A defect class may describe an item as missing, incorrect, or superfluous as shown in Table 10.1. Other defect classes could describe an item as ambiguous or inconsistent . Defects should also be ranked in severity, for example:
(i) major (these would cause the software to fail or deviate from its specification);
(ii) minor (affects nonfunctional aspects of the software).
A ranking scale for defects can be developed in conjunction with a failure severity scale as described in Section 9.1.4.
A walkthrough review is considered complete when the entire document has been covered or walked through, all defects and suggestions for improvement have been recorded, and the walkthrough report has been completed. The walkthrough report lists all the defects and deficiencies, and contains data such as :
• the walkthrough team members;
• the name of the item being examined;
• the walkthrough objectives;
• list of defects and deficiencies;
• recommendations on how to dispose of, or resolve the deficiencies.
Note that the walkthrough report/completion criteria are not as formal as those for an inspection. There is no requirement for a signed status report, and no required follow- up for resolution of deficiencies, although that could be recommended in the walkthrough report.A final important item to note: The purpose of a review is to evaluate a software artifact, not the developer or author of the artifact. Reviews should not be used to evaluate the performance of a software analyst, developer, designer, or tester . This important point should be well established in the review policy. It is essential to adhere to this policy for the review process to work. If authors of software artifacts believe they are being evaluated as individuals, the objective and impartial nature of the review will change, and its effectiveness in revealing problems will be minimized .