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Chapter: Software Testing : Controlling and Monitoring

Components of review plans

Reviews are development and maintenance activities that require time and resources. They should be planned so that there is a place for them in the project schedule.

Components of review plans


Reviews are development and maintenance activities that require time and resources. They should be planned so that there is a place for them in the project schedule. An organization should develop a review plan template that can be applied to all software projects. The template should specify the following items for inclusion in the review plan.


review goals;


items being reviewed;


preconditions for the review;


roles, team size, participants;


training requirements;

review steps;


checklists and other related documents to be disturbed to participants;


time requirements;


the nature of the review log and summary report;


rework and follow-up.


We will now explore each of these items in more detail.


Review Goals


As in the test plan or any other type of plan, the review planner should specify the goals to be accomplished by the review. Some general review goals have been stated in Section 9.0 and include (i) identification of problem components or components in the software artifact that need improvement, (ii) identification of specific errors or defects in the software artifact, (iii) ensuring that the artifact conforms to organizational standards, and (iv) communication to the staff about the nature of the product being developed. Additional goals might be to establish traceability with other project documents, and familiarization with the item being reviewed. Goals for inspections and walkthroughs are usually different; those of walkthroughs are more limited in scope and are usually confined to identification of defects.


Pre conditions and Items to Be Reviewed


Given the principal goals of a technical review—early defect detection, identification of problem areas, and familiarization with software artifacts— many software items are candidates for review. In many organizations the items selected for review include:


requirements documents;


design documents;



test plans (for the multiple levels);


user manuals;training manuals;


standards documents.


Note that many of these items represent a deliverable of a major life cycle phase. In fact, many represent project milestones and the review serves as a progress marker for project progress. Before each of these items are reviewed certain preconditions usually have to be met. For example, before a code review is held, the code may have to undergo a successful compile. The preconditions need to be described in the review policy statement and specified in the review plan for an item. General preconditions for a review are:


(i)                the review of an item(s) is a required activity in the project plan. (Unplanned reviews are also possible at the request of management, SQA or software engineers. Review policy statements should include the conditions for holding an unplanned review.)

(ii) a statement of objectives for the review has been developed;


(iii)           the individuals responsible for developing the reviewed item indicate readiness for the review;


(iv) the review leader believes that the item to be reviewed is sufficiently complete for the review to be useful [8].


The review planner must also keep in mind that a given item to be reviewed may be too large and complex for a single review meeting. The smart planner partitions the review item into components that are of a size and complexity that allows them to be reviewed in 1-2 hours. This is the time range in which most reviewers have maximum effectiveness. For example, the design document for a procedure-oriented system may be reviewed in parts that encompass:


(i) the overall architectural design;


(ii)   data items and module interface design;


(iii)component design.


If the architectural design is complex and/or the number of components is large, then multiple design review sessions should be scheduled for each. The project plan should have time allocated for this.


Roles , Participants , Team Size , and Time Requirements


Two major roles that need filling for a successful review are (i) a leader or moderator, and (ii) a recorder. These are shown in Figure 10.3. Some of the responsibilities of the moderator have been described. These include planning the reviews, managing the review meeting, and issuing the review report. Because of these responsibilities the moderator plays an important role; the success of the review depends on the experience and expertise of the moderator. Reviewing a software item is a tedious process and requires great attention to details. The moderator needs to be sure that all are prepared for the review and that the review meeting stays on track. Reviewers often tire and become less effective at detecting errors if the review time period is too long and the item is too complex for a single review meeting. The moderator/planner must ensure that a time period is selected that is appropriate for the size and complexity of the item under review. There is no set value for a review time period, but a rule of thumb advises that a review session should not be longer than 2 hours [3]. Review sessions can be scheduled over 2-hour time periods separated by breaks. The time allocated for a review should be adequate enough to ensure that the material under review can be adequately covered.


The review recorder has the responsibility for documenting defects, and recording review findings and recommendations, Other roles may include a reader who reads or presents the item under review. Readers are usually the authors or preparers of the item under review. The author(


s) is responsible for per forming any rework on the reviewed item. In a walkthrough type of review, the author may serve as the moderator, but this is not true for an inspection. All reviewers should be trained in the review process. The size of the review team will vary depending type, size, and complexity of the item under review. Again, as with time, there is no fixed size for a review team. In most cases a size between 3 and 7 is a rule of thumb, but that depends on the items under review and the experience level of the review team. Of special importance is the experience of the review moderator who is responsible for ensuring the material is covered, the review meeting stays on track, and review outputs are produced. The minimal team size of 3 ensures that the review will be public [6].

Organizational policies guide selection of review team members. Membership may vary with the type of review. As shown in Figure 10.4 the review team can consist of software quality assurance staff members, testers, and developers (analysts, designers, programmers). In some cases the size of the review team will be increased to include a specialist in a particular area related to the reviewed item; in other cases ―outsiders may be invited to a review to get a more unbiased evaluation of the item. These outside members may include users/clients. Users/clients should certainly be present at requirements, user manual, and acceptance test plan reviews. Some recommend that users also be present at design and even code reviews. Organizational policy should refer to this issue, keeping in mind the limited technical knowledge of most users/clients.


In many cases it is wise to invite review team members from groups that were involved in the preceding and succeeding phases of the life cycle document being reviewed. These participants could be considered to be outsiders. For example, if a design document is under review, it would be useful to invite a requirements team representative and a coding team member to be a review participant since correctness, consistency, implementability, and traceability are important issues for this review. In addition, these attendees can offer insights and perspectives that differ from the group members that were involved in preparing the current document under review. It is the author‘s option that testers take part in all major milestone reviews to ensure:

effective test planning;

traceability between tests, requirements, design and code elements;


discussion, and support of testability issues;


support for software product quality issues;


the collection and storage of review defect data;


support for adequate testing of ―trouble-prone areas.


Testers need to especially interact with designers on the issue of testability. A more testable design is the goal. For example, in an object-oriented system a tester may request during a design review that additional methods be included in a class to display its state variables. In this case and others, it may appear on the surface that this type of design is more expensive to develop and implement. However, consider that in the long run if the software is more testable there will be two major positive effects:


(i) the testing effort is likely to be decreased, thus lowering expenses, and


(ii) the software is likely to be of higher quality, thus increasing customer satisfaction.


Review Procedures


For each type of review that an organization wishes to implement, there should be a set of standardized steps that define the given review procedure. For example, the steps for an inspection are shown in Figure 10.2. These are initiation, preparation, inspection meeting, reporting results, and rework and follow-up. For each step in the procedure the activities and tasks for all the reviewer participants should be defined. The review plan should refer to the standardized procedures where applicable.


Review Training


Review participants need training to be effective. Responsibility for reviewer training classes usually belongs to the internal technical training staff. Alternatively, an organization may decide to send its review trainees to external training courses run by commercial institutions. Review participants, and especially those who will be review leaders, need the training. Test specialists should also receive review training. Suggested topics for a training program are shown in Figure 10.5 and described below. Some of the topics can be covered very briefly since it is assumed that the reviewers (expect for possible users/clients) are all technically proficient.


1 . Review of Process Concepts.


Reviewers should understand basic process concepts, the value of process improvement, and the role of reviews as a product and process improvement tool.

2 . Review of Quality Issues.


Reviewers should be made familiar with quality attributes such as correctness, testability, maintainability, usability, security, portability, and so on, and how can these be evaluated in a review.


3 . Review of Organizational Standards for Software Artifacts .


Reviewers should be familiar with organizational standards for software artifacts. For example, what items must be included in a software document; what is the correct order and degree of coverage of topics expected; what types of notations are permitted. Good sources for this material are IEEE standards and guides [1,9,10].


4 . Understanding the Material to Be Reviewed.


Concepts of understanding and how to build mental models during comprehension of code and software-related documents should be covered. A critical issue is how fast a reviewed document should be read/checked by an individual and by the group as a whole. This applies to requirements,design, test plans and other documents, as well as source code. A rate of 5-10 pages/hour or 125-150 LOC/hour for a review group has been quoted as favorable [7]. Reading rates that are too slow will make review meetings ineffective with respect to the number of defects found per unit time. Readings that are too fast will allow defects and problems to go undetected.


5 . Defect and Problem Types.


Review trainees need to become aware of the most frequently occurring types of problems or errors that are likely to occur during development. They need to be aware what their causes are, how they are transformed into defects, and where they are likely to show up in the individual deliverables. The trainees should become familiar with the defect type categories, severity levels, and numbers and types of defects found in past deliverables of similar systems. Review trainees should also be made aware of certain indicators or clues that a certain type of defect or problem has occurred [3]. The definitions of defects categories, and maintenance of a defect data base are the responsibilities of the testers and SQA staff.



6 . Communication and Meeting Management Skills .


These topics are especially important for review leaders. It is their responsibility to communicate with the review team, the preparers of the reviewed document, management, and in some cases clients/user group members. Review leaders need to have strong oral and written communication skills and also learn how to conduct a review meeting. During a review meeting there are interactions and expression of opinion from a group of technically qualified people who often want to be heard. The review leader must ensure that all are prepared, that the meeting stays on track, that all get a chance to express their opinions, that the proper page/code document checking rate is achieved, and that results are recorded. Review leaders also must trained so that they can ensure that authors of the document or artifact being reviewed are not under the impression that they themselves are being evaluated. The review leader needs to uphold the organizational view that the purpose of the review is to support the authors in improving the quality of the item they have developed. Policy statements to this effect need to be written and explained to review trainees, especially those who will be review leaders.


Skills in conflict resolution are very useful, since very often reviewers will have strong opinions and arguments can dominate a review session unless there is intervention by the leader. There are also issues of power and control over deliverables and aspects of deliverables and other hidden agenda that surface during a review meeting that must be handled by the review leader. In this case people and management skills are necessary, and sometime these cannot be taught. They come through experience.


7 . Review Documentation and Record Keeping.


Review leaders need to learn how to prepare checklists, agendas, and logs for review meetings. Examples will be provided for some of these documents later in this chapter. Other examples can be found in Freedman and Weinberg [6], Myers [11], and Kit [12]. Checklists for inspections should be appropriate for the item being inspected. Checklists in general should focus on the following issues:


most frequent errors;


completeness of the document;


correctness of the document;

adherence to standards.


8 . Special Instructions.


During review training there may be some topics that need to be covered with the review participants. For example, there may be interfaces with hardware that involve the reviewed item, and reviewers may need some additional background discussion to be able to evaluate those interfaces.

9 . Practice Review Sessions.


Review trainees should participate in practice review sessions. There are very instructive and essential. One option is for instructors to use existing documents that have been reviewed in the past and have the trainees do a practice review of these documents. Results can be compared to those of experienced reviewers, and useful lessons can be learned from problems identified by the trainees and those that were not. Instructors can discuss so-called ―false positives which are not true defects but are identified as such. Trainees can also attend review sessions with experienced reviewers as observers, to learn review lessons.


In general, training material for review trainees should have adequate examples, graphics, and homework exercises. Instructors should be provided with the media equipment needed to properly carry out instruction. Material can be of the self-paced type, or for group course work.


Review Checklists


Inspections formally require the use of a checklist of items that serves as the focal point for review examinations and discussions on both the individual and group levels. As a precondition for checklist development an organization should identify the typical types of defects made in past projects, develop a classification scheme for those defects, and decide on impact or severity categories for the defects. If no such defect data is available, staff members need to search the literature, industrial reports, or the organizational archives to retrieve this type of information.


Checklists are very important for inspectors. They provide structure and an agenda for the review meeting. They guide the review activities, identify focus areas for discussion and evaluation, ensure all relevant items are covered, and help to frame review record keeping and measurement. Reviews are really a two-step process: (i) reviews by individuals, and (ii) reviews by the group. The checklist plays its important role in both steps. The first step involves the individual reviewer and the review material. Prior to the review meeting each individual must be provided with the materials to review and the checklist of items. It is his responsibility to do his homework and individually inspect that document using the checklist as a guide, and to document any problems he encounters.


When they attend the group meeting which is the second review step, each reviewer should bring his or her individual list of defect/problems, and as each item on the checklist is discussed they should comment. Finally, the reviewers need to come to a consensus on what needs to be fixed and what remains unchanged. Each item that undergoes a review requires a different checklist that addresses the special issues associated with quality evaluation for that item. However each checklist should have components similar to those shown in Table 10.1. The first column lists all the defect types or potential problem areas that may occur in the item under review. Sources for these defect types are usually data from past projects. Abbreviations for detect/ problem types can be developed to simplify the checklist forms. Status refers to coverage during the review meeting —has the item been discussed? If so, a check mark is placed in the column. Major or minor are the two severity or impact levels shown here. Each organization needs to decide on the severity levels that work for them. Using this simple severity scale, a defect or problem that is classified as major has a large impact on product quality; it can cause failure or deviation from specification. A minor problem has a small impact on these; in general, it would affect a nonfunctional aspect of the software. The letters M, I, and S indicate whether a checklist item is missing (M), incorrect (I), or superfluous (S).


In this section we will look at several sample checklists. These are shown in Tables 10.2-10.5. One example is the general checklist shown in Table 10.2, which is applicable to almost all software documents. The checklist is used is to ensure that all documents are complete, correct, consistent, clear, and concise. Table 10.2 only shows the problem/defect types component


(column) for simplicity‘s sake. All the components as found in Table 10.1 should be present on each checklist form. That also holds true for the checklists illustrated in Tables 10.3-10.5. The recorder is responsible for completing the group copy of the checklist form during the review meeting (as opposed to the individual checklist form completed during review preparation by each individual reviewer). The recorder should also keep track of each defect and where in the document it occurs (line, page, etc.). The group checklist can appear on a wallboard so that all can see what has been entered. Each individual should bring to the review meeting his or her own version of the checklist completed prior to the review meeting.In addition to using the widely applicable problem/defect types shown in Table 10.2 each item undergoing review has


specific attributes that should be addressed on a checklist form. Some examples will be given in the following pages of checklist items appropriate for reviewing different types of software artifacts.


Requirements Reviews


In addition to covering the items on the general document checklist as shown in Table 10.2, the following items should be included in the checklist for a requirements review.


  completeness (have all functional and quality requirements described in the problem statement been included?);

correctness (do the requirements reflect the user‘s needs? are they stated without error?);


consistency (do any requirements contradict each other?);


clarity (it is very important to identify and clarify any ambiguous requirements);


   relevance (is the requirement pertinent to the problem area? Requirements should not be superfluous);


                     redundancy (a requirement may be repeated; if it is a duplicate it should be combined with an equivalent one);


  testability (can each requirement be covered successfully with one or more test cases? can tests determine if the requirement has been satisfied?);feasibility (are requirements implementable given the conditions underwhich the project will progress?).


Users/clients or their representatives should be present at a requirements review to ensure that the requirements truly reflect their needs, and that the requirements are expressed clearly and completely. It is also very important for testers to be present at the requirements review. One of their major responsibilities it to ensure that the requirements are testable. Very often the master or early versions of the system and acceptance test plans are included in the requirements review. Here the reviewers/testers can use a traceability matrix to ensure that each requirement can be covered by one or more tests. If requirements are not clear, proposing test cases can be of help in focusing attention on these areas, quantifying imprecise requirements, and providing general information to help resolve problems.


Although not on the list above, requirements reviews should also ensure that the requirements are free of design detail. Requirements focus on what the system should do, not on how to implement it.


Design Reviews


Designs are often reviewed in one or more stages. It is useful to review the high level architectural design at first and later review the detailed design. At each level of design it is important to check that the design is consistent with the requirements and that it covers all the requirements. Again the general checklist is applicable with respect to clarity, completeness, correctness and so on. Some specific items that should be checked for at a design review are:

a description of the design technique used;

an explanation of the design notation used;


                     evaluation of design alternatives (it is important to establish that design alternatives have been evaluated, and to determine why this particular approach was selected);


   quality of the high-level architectural model (all modules and their relationships should be defined; this includes newly developed modules, revised modules, COTS components, and any


other reused modules; module coupling and cohesion should be evaluated.);


description of module interfaces;


quality of the user interface;


quality of the user help facilities;


identification of execution criteria and operational sequences;

clear description of interfaces between this system and other software and hardware systems;


     coverage of all functional requirements by design elements; coverage of al l quality requirements, for example, ease of use, portability, maintainability, security, readability, adaptability, performance requirements (storage, response time) by design elements;

reusability of design components;


  testability (how will the modules, and their interfaces be tested? How will they be integrated and tested as a complete system?).

For reviewing detailed design the following focus areas should also be revisited:


encapsulation, information hiding and inheritance;


module cohesion and coupling;

quality of module interface description;


module reuse.


Both levels of design reviews should cover testability issues as described above. In addition, measures that are now available such as module complexity, which gives an indication of testing effort, can be used to estimate the extent of the testing effort. Reviewers should also check traceability from tests to design elements and to requirements. Some organizations may re-examine system and integration test plans in the context of the design elements under review. Preliminary unit test plans can also be examined along with the design documents to ensure traceability, consistency, and complete coverage. Other issues to be discussed include language issues and the appropriateness of the proposed language to implement the design.


Code Reviews


Code reviews are useful tools for detecting defects and for evaluating code quality. Some organizations require a clean compile as a precondition for a code review. The argument is that it is more effective to use an automated tool to identify syntax errors than to use human experts to perform this task. Other organizations will argue that a clean compile makes rediligent in checking for defects since they will assume the compiler has detected many of them.


Code review checklists can have both general and language-specific components. The general code review checklist can be used to review code written in any programming language. There are common quality features that should be checked no matter what implementation language is selected. Table 10.3 shows a list of items that should be included in a general code checklist. The general checklist is followed by a sample checklist that can be used for a code review for programs written in the C programming language. The problem/defect types are shown in Table


10.4. When developing your own checklist documents be sure to include the other columns as shown in Table 10.1. The reader should note that since the languagespecific checklist addresses programming-language-specific issues, a different checklist is required for each language used in the organization.


Test Plan Reviews


Test plans are also items that can be reviewed. Some organizations will review them along with other related documents. For example, a master test plan and an acceptance test plan could be reviewed with the requirements document, the integration and system test plans reviewed with the design documents, and unit test plans reviewed with detailed design documents [2]. Other organizations, for example, those that use the Extended/ Modified V-model, may have separate review meetings for each of the test plans. In Chapter 7 the components of a test plan were discussed, and the review should insure that all these components are present and that they are correct, clear, and complete. The general document checklist can be applied to test plans, and a more specific checklist can be developed for test-specific issues. An example test plan checklist is shown in Table 10.4. The test plan checklist is applicable to all levels of test plans.


Other testing products such as test design specifications, test procedures, and test cases can also be reviewed. These reviews can be held in conjunction with reviews of other test-related items or other software items.


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