Psychoses are generally divided into two classes functional
and organic. In organic psychoses, organic and physiological factors play a
On the other hand in functional psychoses, physiological
factors play a lesser part than psychological causes. Clinical psychology
restricts its study to functional psychoses since their causes and cure are
more purely psychological.
psychoses are mainly of the following there kinds.
Manic depressive psychosis.
Nature of Paranoia:
In Paranoia, the patient becomes a prey to permanent
delusion. According to Kreplien, the causes of delusion are internal and no
hallucination is involved. Thus Kreplien' s explanation has succeeded in
counting both the earlier views to which that disease had been accredited.
Henroth and his followers believed it to be a mental distortion, while
Gresinger and fellow thinkers accepted it as an emotional deformity.
Symptoms of Paranoia:
In Paranoia the patient becomes a
prey to a permanent delusion. It should be kept in mind that there is delusion
in schizophrenia also but in that case it is not permanent or organized. In
paranoia, the symptoms of delusion appear gradually and patient is sentimental,
suspicious, introverted, depressed, obstinate, feelers, enthuse selfish,
unsocial and bitter.
Hence his or her social and family adjustment
is not desirable and while he or she has the highest ambitions, the effort that
he or she is prepared to expend is correspondingly little. He does not
acknowledge his own faults or failure and by sometimes accepting certain
qualities as belonging to him or her, even when imaginary, he or she develops
Kinds of paranoia:
The chief feature of paranoia is
permanent delusion and delusion can be of many kinds. Hence kinds of paranoia
have been distinguished on the basis of different kinds of delusions.
The main kinds are the following:
This is the most prevalent kind. In this the patient makes
himself or herself, believe that all those around him or her are his or her
enemies, bent on harming him or her, even on taking his or her life. In this
delusion, people of an aggressive temperament often turn dangerous killers.
Delusion of grandeur:
In this, the patient believes
himself to be a great individual and according to Blender, this delusion of
grandeur accompanies the persecutory delusion.
In this the patient suffers from a permanent delusion of a
primarily religious nature. He believes that he is the messenger of God, who
has been sent to the world to propagate some religion.
In this the patient turns to
considering himself a great reformer. He accordingly looks upon all those
around him as suffering from a dangerous disease and believes that he is their
reformer and curator.
In this the patient often tends to
believe that some member of the opposite sex belonging to an illustrious family
wants to marry him. Such people even write love levers and thereby cause much
bother to other people.
In this kind of delusion, the
patient takes to filing meaningless cases against other people and feels that
people are linked together to bother him. Sometimes he even tries to murder.
In this type, the patient believes that he is suffering from
all kinds of ridiculous diseases and also that some other people are to blame
for his suffering.
Causes of paranoia:
Different psychiatrists have
attributed paranoia to different causes, the main ones being the following:
to Freud, the patient suffering from this disease has repressed his tendency to
homosexual love to such an extent that he develops a fixation concerning it.
Freud view has been found correct in many cases, but it does not explain each
and every cure of the disease.
Feeling of inferiority:
Henderson and other psychologists
examined cases of paranoia to find out the truth of Freud' s contention, and
during this examination they found that the main cause of paranoia is a sense
of inferiority that may be caused by a variety of conditions, such as failure
disgust, sense of guilt etc.
Certain psychologists have traced the causes paranoia to
emotional complex. But in this connection it is necessary to point out the
emotional complex that causes this disease since these are various kinds of
emotional complexes and also because they are seen to be present in other
mental diseases as also in normal individuals.
Cameron believes a certain personality type to be more
susceptible to this disease, a personality that has sentimental values,
jealousy, suspicious, ambition, selfishness, shyness etc. Patients of paranoia
do exhibit these peculiarities of personality but on this base they cannot be
said to belong to a definite personality.
In the opinion of Fisher, the main
responsibilities of paranoia, lies fairly and squarely upon heredity although
he does not deny the importance of repression and emotional complexes. The
causes of paranoia are not physical because no patient exhibits any signs of
physical deformity, major cause such as defects of personality, sense of
inferiority, repression etc.
Cure of paranoia:
cure of paranoia is very difficult and it is essential that treatment should be
started immediately. Once it grows, there is no curing.
Compared to other mental diseases, this disease does not
respond immediately to psychoanalytic treatment, because being suspicious, the
patient does not Co-operate with the Doctor. Even then, with due precaution,
certain results can be achieved by employing this method.
Injections of insulin:
Some patients also respond to this
treatment but this cannot be said of all.