The psychologist Kulpe defines emotion 'as a fusion of feeling and organic sensations'. The psychologist Hoffding defines it
'as a pleasure pain in association with the idea of its
According to psychologist Ward,
'it is the complete psychosis involving cognition,
pleasure-pain and conation'.
In general emotion
'is a complex, not a simple elementary , mental state'.
difference between motives and emotions are as follows: Emotions are usually
aroused by external stimuli and that emotional expression is directed
toward the stimuli in the
that arouses it.
Motives on the other hand, are more often aroused by internal stimuli and naturally
directed towards certain objects in the environment ( eg Food , Water) .
Most motivated behaviour has some
affective or emotional accompaniment although we may be too preoccupied in our
striving toward the goal.
Motivation is focused on the goal
directed activity. Emotion is focused on the subjective, affective experiences
that accompany behaviour.
are expressed by language , facial expressions and gestures.
emotional state is characterized by
A more or less pronounced affective
tone . Pleasure unpleasure - experienced in connection with some objective or
A diffuse stimulation of the organic
processes, involving pulse, respiration, glandular secretions which is usually
called the organic resonance of the emotion but according to theory of the
psychologist James Lange , it is identified with emotion itself
A narrowing and specializing of
consciousness, both on the cognitive and on the curative side, the consequence
of what we may call emotional disassociation.
An impulsive force
Physiological Changes in Emotions:
All emotional states affect the
activities of the salivary glands. The bodily effects of pain hunger fear and
rage have all the emotions of characteristically, negative polarity. In such
cases the secretion of saliva is diminished or inhibited.
There is a fair presumption that
emotions of an opposite or positive, polarity will produce the opposite effect
but practically no experimental evidence.
The emotional disturbances of a
negative polarity ( that is disagreeable ) involve disturbance of the digestive
functions in all its aspects.
The flow of saliva is diminished or
altogether inhibited, and its chemical composition altered . The flow of
gastric juices is similarly diminished or inhibited and altered chemically. The
negative moments then tend to cease.
This fact suggested to psychologist Cannon, the possibility that emotional excitement might involve an
increased secretion of adenines and that this adenine in the blood might have
the effect of prolonging the inhibition of the activity of the digestive glands
after the emotional excitement itself had disappeared .
By testing the blood for adenine
after a period of time for the quantity of adenine in the blood, it is greatly
increased as a result of strong emotion.
Most of the physiological changes that occur during intense
emotion, result from activation of the sympathetic division of the autonomic
nervous system as it prepares the body for emergency action.
The sympathetic system is
responsible for the following changes.
Blood pressure and heart rate
Respiration becomes more rapid
The pupils of the eye dilate.
Electrical resistance of the skin
Blood sugar level increases to
provide more energy
The blood begins to clot more
quickly in the case of wounds
Mobility of the gastro intestinal
tract decreases or stops entirely. Blood is diverted from the stomach and
intestines and are sent to the brain and skeletal muscles.
The hairs on the skin erect causing
'Goose pimples. In emotion the sympathetic system also causes epinephrine
(adrenaline) and non- epinephrine (non adrenaline). Nerve impulses with
sympathetic system, which reach adrenal glands located on the top of the
kidneys, trigger the secretion of hormones. They then get into the blood and
circulate around the body.