Attitudes have been defined as ideas with emotional content
important beliefs, predispositions, biases and appreciations and as state of
readiness or set.
Allport has defined attitude
'as a mental and neural state of
readiness organized through experiences exerting a directive or dynamic
influence upon the individual response to all objects with which it is
Attitudes have intellectual, biological, social emotional
components that are derived from experiences and exercise determining
influences upon behaviour.
Variety of patterns of attitudes toward health, life and
death of people, new situations, music and art, work, play, government,
religion and many more have been influenced by the process through planned and
random experiences in creating and shaping attitudes.
In this school, family and society play vital roles.
the growth and development occurs in the infant a changing array of needs bring
new reaction to objects and situations.
An infant, gains pleasure from being
helped and protected where as a child in the early period of walking is likely
to and resent and reject the helping hand.
Development changes of this kind
produce tremendous change in the child relationship with objects and
Despite apparent incongruity, the
orderly and sequential development of the total organisms, result in threads of
continuity of feeling.
Ordinarily a satisfying state of
affairs over and extended period of time, produces a positive feeling in the
child for the object or activity involved.
As the child ' s perceptional field
expands, generalization of response becomes possible. An infant who has
experienced general pleasure at the breast or bottle is likely to anticipate
pleasure from eating other foods.
Continued dissatisfaction and
unpleasantness during nursing are likely to create a negative feeling about
A child attitudes authority figure,
is obviously an important element of socialization and determines much of his
behaviour in school
Early experiences involving the
child and his parents are responsible for the beginnings of this attitude. A
rebellious attitude towards authority figure teachers, Principal, leader etc.
May spring from a conflict with some
one in authority, usually a parent or a parent substitute .
important element in the early development of the attitude toward adult is the
satisfaction or dissatisfaction derived from the child' s dependency upon
parents particularly the mother figure.
Any separation from the family and
especially from the mother is for a young child a painfull and distressing
experience, which is not tolerable before he has acquired the concepts of time
Such an experience in children under
three years of age, usually brings a change in the relationship with adults
Separation over a period of time
accompanied by depriving of needs is likely to produce incapacity to achieve
close and intimate human relationship.
The attitude of the child toward the
teacher is strongly influenced by the following elements of mother child
Satisfying experiences with mother.
Mother ' s experience and what she
expected of the child.
s attitudes towards other children in the family.
The parental attitude of acceptant
democratic seems to facilitate growth and development more than the others.
These children from the home
atmosphere of warmth and equality have an accelerated intellectual development
are more original, emotionally more secured, less excitable, popular, friendly
and non aggressive.
Attitude has four dimensions intensity, direction, extensity
and duration. Extensity of an attitude is evidenced by the extent to which it
motivates an individual' s behaviour.
Limits of interest can be determined
by the nature of barriers needed to exhibit a response.
Behaviour motivated by a weak attitude can be the thwarted
by the obstacle that seem to have very little actual substance, but an intense
attitude is likely to find expression in behaviour despite almost over-whelming
The dimension of an attitude is observed in behaviour as a
force that repels, attracts or fails to motivate the child in any direction as
in the case of an I DON' T PARTICULARLY CARE attitude.
Although behaviour in a given direction frequently indicates
directly related attitude, there are numerous occasions when the opposite
interpretation is in order.
An individual having a negative attitude towards a given
group may join them outwardly seeming to have a positive attitude. But by the
very subtle means brings about disruption and chaos in the group or divert it
from its goal.
Extensity is observed in a broad
survey of pattern of attitude within the individual.
Some attitudes seem to have broad
and pervading influences. The duration of an attitude is another aspect that is
important to education .
A function of education is the
modification of existing negative attitude and creation of new ones that are
positive and enduring attitudes may endure only for a short time, because they
have not been reinforced by experiences.
Infact new experiences may bring about a complete reverse of
the previous attitudes. Attitudes are changed by school experiences. They may
be changed by the influence of a particular teacher, another child, peer
groups, a single event, curriculum material or a series of extracurricular
A desirable attitude toward learning will be maintained if
The thing to be learned is not too
far removed from past learning' s.
The learning situations are made
physically and intellectually attractive to the learner.
knowledge of skill to be acquired is perceived as a need satisfier.
The concomitant experiences do not
appear to be more immediate goal satisfiers.
Learning in an accompanied by a
feeling of achievement reinforced by recognition from others.