Psychodynamic theories of personality:
Psychoanalytic theories of personality are referred to as psychodynamic theory. This theory attempts to understand personality in terms of mental functions may be rational. Irrational , conscious or unconscious.
Freud' s theory of psychoanalysis emphasizes man as dynamic system of energies and the main storehouse of such energies is unconscious. The contents of the unconscious invariably exhibit conflicts. To Freud , the structure of an individual' s Personality consists of 3 separate agencies
Id is the inborn reservoirs of primitive psychic energy called libido , unconscious demanding immediate satisfaction on the basis of pleasure principle regardless of external which ego and superego develops and it consists of energy thing that is inherited.
All the energy of human behaviour is provided by two inborn id instincts namely sex and aggression, which he spoke of Eros-life instincts and thantoes, death instincts.
Ego embodies a rational cognitive capacity that demands of super ego.
Id seeks pleasure ego test reality and super ego strives for perfection. From Anxiety , defense mechanism or unconscious attempts to reduce anxiety by denying or destroying reality.
The technique of Eric Berne' s transactional refers to wholesome transaction from childhood to adulthood . Freud also emphasizes the early experiences in personality development. He speaks of psychosexual development of the individual .
The oral stage , during infancy and
the anal stage between the age 2 and 3 ,
the phallic stage 3 to 5 ,
From 5 up to early adolescence the stage of Oedipuscomplex/electracomplex. Then from 5 up to early adolescence sexual force are subordinated which marks the latency, period and finally the genital stage of heterosexuality.
Psychosexual maturity is reached by an individual as the end result of successful passage through the full
sequence of stages.
Carl Jung differs from Preud in taking a more positive and optimistic attitude towards human nature believing that people not only try to gratify their instincts but also try to develop their potential.
Jung agreeing with Freudian view of unconsciousness, which represents the accumulated experiences, and culture of the human species throughout its evolutionary development from primitive times.
Alfred Adler' s personality theory stress the uniqueness of one' s personality looks upon aggression is more significant than sex as a motive of behaviour. He points to the innate striving for superiority.
To Erikson, personality is the resultant from interaction between the needs of a person and the demands of a society at a particular stage of development.
He refers to eight psychosocial stages of development. A particular type of crisis characterizes each stage. Ego identify crisis during adolescence and now an individual resolves such crises determines personality characteristics.
H.S.Sviiilan has stressed the interpersonal nature of personality and has laid on the acquisition of language as a means of normal personality development.