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Organisation of Life | Chapter 18 | 8th Science - Physiological Processes | 8th Science : Chapter 18 : Organisation of Life

Chapter: 8th Science : Chapter 18 : Organisation of Life

Physiological Processes

The ways in which biomolecules, cells, tissues, organs and organs systems work together to accomplish the complex goal of sustaining life are called physiological processes. Let us study about some of them here.

Physiological Processes

The ways in which biomolecules, cells, tissues, organs and organs systems work together to accomplish the complex goal of sustaining life are called physiological processes. Let us study about some of them here.

 

Homeostasis

Homeostasis is a property of human biological system where the self-regulating process tends to maintain the balance for the survival. The regulation takes place in a defined internal environment. Mammals are capable of maintaining constant body temperature despite the changes in the external temperature. Behavioural and physiological responses are the two important regulating mechanisms that maintain the stability of homeostasis.

In simple terms, it could be referred as a balance in a system to maintain a stable internal environment for the survival of the animal. If the homeostasis regulates successfully, life continues or if unsuccessful, death or disaster occurs.

All the processes of integration and co-ordination of function are mediated by nervous and hormonal system. The liver, kidney, and brain (hypothalamus), autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system help to maintain homeostasis.

Maintenance of body fluid concentrations, body temperature are done by various bio-physical and bio-chemical methods. Human beings are warm blooded in nature i.e, they maintain their body temperature as constant. When the body temperature raises sweat is produced to bring the temperature down. When the body temperature lowers heat is produced by the muscular work by shivering. This is an example for homeostasis.

The control of blood glucose level is another example in which insulin hormone is secreted whenever the blood glucose level raises and glucagon hormone is secreted whenever the blood glucose level reduces.

 

Diffusion

Diffusion is the movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to lower concentration. The overall effect is to equalize concentration throughout the medium.

Examples for diffusion include, perfume filling a whole room and the movement of small molecules across a cell membrane. One of the simplest demonstrations of diffusion is adding a drop of ink to water.


What will happen when an incense stick is lit up in a room? How do we feel? The fragrance spreads over the entire room. The movement of molecules or ions is from a region of higher concentration to region of lower concentration. You can smell incense stick after lighting because the smoke diffuses in the air and makes its way to your nose. Let us think of the following. How does the smell spread in the entire room? Does the smell spread uniformly in the entire room? Can you give any other examples?

There are other processes in which substances move in liquid medium. For an example when a tea pack is immersed in a cup of hot water the tea powder particles disperse in to water by diffusion.


The mixing of foodstuffs and digestive juices in the gut occurs by diffusion. Exchange of respiratory gases (Oxygen and Carbondioxide) between blood and tissue fluids between tissue fluid and cells also occurs by diffusion.

 

Osmosis

Osmosis is the movement of solvent particles across a semipermeable membrane from a dilute solution into a concentrated solution. The solvent moves to dilute the concentrated solution and equalize the concentration on both sides of the membrane.

The movement of liquids in and out of cells is dependent on the concentration of the solution surrounding it. There are three types of situations in which this could vary.

Isotonic

Here the concentration of external and internal solution of the organism are the same.

Hypotonic

Here the external solution concentration is less compared to the concentration of the inner solution of an organism. In this case water will rush into the organism.

Hypertonic

Here the external solution concentration is greater than the concentration of the inner solution of an organism. In this case the water will rush out of the organism.


 

Osmoregulation

The term osmoregulation was coined by Hober in 1902. Osmoregulation is the process by which an organism regulates the water balance in its body and maintains the homeostasis of the body. It includes controlling excess water loss or gain and maintaining the fluid balance and the osmotic concentration, that is, the concentration of electrolytes. It ensures that the fluids in the body do not get too diluted or concentrated.

Organisms are divided into two types based on osmoregulation. They are Osmoconformers and Osmoregulator.

Osmoconformers

These organisms try to maintain the osmolality of their body matching with their surroundings. Most of the invertebrates, marine organisms are osmoconformers.


Osmoregulators

These organisms maintain their internal osmolality, which can be extremely different from that of the surrounding environment, through physiological processes


 

Cellular respiration

Cellular respiration is the process by which organisms break down glucose into a form that the cell can use as energy. This energy is then made available to living cells in the form of ATP. Cellular respiration takes place in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of the cells. The cellular respiration is classified into two types: aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration.

a. Aerobic respiration

In this type of respiration, the food substances are completely oxidized into H2O and CO2 with the release of energy. It requires atmospheric oxygen and all higher organisms respire aerobically. This reaction releases a large amount of energy.

Glucose + Oxygen → Carbon dioxide + Water + Energy

b. Anaerobic respiration

In this type of respiration, partial oxidation of food takes place and the organisms release energy in the absence of oxygen. This type of respiration occurs in organisms like yeast. Ethyl alcohol or lactic acid and carbon dioxide are the by-products of this process. This reaction releases very little energy because glucose is not completely oxidized.


For example, yeast cells convert glucose into carbon dioxide and ethanol, with the release of energy, without using oxygen.

Glucose → Ethanol + Carbon dioxide + Energy

 

Metabolism

Metabolism is the sum of chemical reactions by which living organisms sustain their life. Metabolism consists of anabolism (the buildup of substances) and catabolism (the breakdown of substances). The term metabolism is commonly used to refer specifically to the breakdown of food and its transformation into energy, cellular products and waste elimination.

More to know

Aerobic respiration releases 19 times more energy than anaerobic respiration from the same amount of glucose. In aerobic respiration each glucose molecules produce 36 ATPs.

a. Anabolism

Anabolism or constructive metabolism, is all about building and storing. It supports the growth of new cells, the maintenance of body tissues, and the storage of energy for use in the future. During anabolism, small molecules are changed into larger, more complex molecules of carbohydrate, protein, and fat.

Example

Glucose → Glycogen and other sugars

Amino acids → Enzymes, hormones, proteins

Fatty acids → Cholesterol and other steroids

b. Catabolism

Catabolism or destructive metabolism, is the process that produces the energy required for all activity in the cells. In this process, cells break down large molecules (mostly carbohydrates and fats) to release energy. This energy release provides fuel for anabolism, heats the body, and enables the muscles to contract and the body to move. As complex chemical units are broken down into more simple substances, the waste products released in the process of catabolism are removed from the body through the skin, kidneys, lungs, and intestines.

Example

Carbohydrates → Glucose

Glucose → CO2 , Water and Heat

Protein → Amino acid

The repeated anabolism and catabolism reactions maintain the homeostatic condition in the organism. The metabolic process is the cause for maintaining ionic balance in the body. It is also responsible for movement, growth, development, maintenance and repair of the cells, tissues and the human body. These metabolic reactions occur in different organs of living species.

More to know

Basal metabolism refers to the minimum energy required to maintain the normal activities of the body during complete rest in a warm atmosphere, 12 – 18 hours after the intake of food.

 

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