Home | | Nursing 11th std | Oral Hygiene (Mouth Wash)

Patient Hygiene - Oral Hygiene (Mouth Wash) | 11th Nursing : Chapter 7 : Hygiene - Patient and their Environment

Chapter: 11th Nursing : Chapter 7 : Hygiene - Patient and their Environment

Oral Hygiene (Mouth Wash)

The oral cavity is lined with mucous membrane continuous with the skin.

Oral Hygiene (Mouth Wash)

The oral cavity is lined with mucous membrane continuous with the skin. The mucous membrane is an epithelial tissue that lines and protects organs. Secretes mucous to keep passage ways of digestive system moist and lubricated and absorbs nutrition.

Purposes of oral Hygiene

1.        Oral hygiene helps maintain the healthy state of the mouth, teeth, gums and lips.

2.        Brushing massages the gums.

3.        Brushing cleanses the teeth of food articles, plaque and bacteria.

4.        Brushing relieves discomfort resulting from unpleasant odors and tastes.

5.        Flossing helps remove plaque and tartar from between teeth or reduce the gum inflammation and infection.

6.        Oral hygiene gives a sense of well being.

7.        Proper oral hygiene stimulated appetite.

8.        To improve taste.

Proper oral Hygiene

1.        Good oral hygiene involves cleanliness, confer and the moisturizing the mouth structures. Proper care prevents oral disease and tooth destruction.

2.        Brushing, flossing and irrigation are necessary for proper cleaning.

3.        To prevent tooth decay, reduce the intake of carbohydrates, especially sweet snacks between meals.

4.        Brushing of the teeth at least four times a day is a basic to an effective oral hygiene (after meals and at bed time)

5.        Tooth brushes should be replaced every three months.

6.        After brushing, thorough rinsing is important to remove dislodged food particles.

Risk Factors for Oral Problems

1.        Patients who are paralyzed or seriously ill.

2.        Unconscious patients.

3.        Diabetic patients.

4.        Patients undergoing radiation therapy.

5.        Patients receiving Chemotherapy

6.        Patients having oral surgery, trauma.

7.        Patients with immune suppression drug e.g HIV Patients.

Common Oral Problems

The two major types of oral problems are dental caries (cavities) and periodontal disease ({Pyorrhea)

1.        Dental caries is the most common oral problem of younger people. The development of the cavity involves the destruction of tooth enamel through decalcification. Decalcification is a result of an accumulation of mucin, carbohydrates and lactic acid bacilli in the saliva normally found in the mouth, which forms a coating on the teeth called Plaque. Plaque is transparent and adheres to the teeth near the base of the crown at the gum margins. The plaque prevents normal acid dilution and neutralization, preventing the dissolution of bacteria in the oral cavity. The acid eventually destroys the teeth enamel and in severe cases, the pulp, or inner sponge tissue of the teeth.

2.        Periodontal disease is the disease of the tissue around the tooth. It is an inflammation of the periodontal membrane. It is most common problem of people over 35 years of age. The calculus deposit on teeth at the gum line. The gingivae become swollen and tender. Then the inflammation spreads, pockets develop between gums gingivae. The alveolar bone is destroyed and the teeth loosen.

3.        Halitosis (Bad Breath):- is a common problem of the oral cavity.


I.               Poor oral hygiene

II.               Inspection of the oral cavity

III.               Liver disease

IV.               Diabetes

4.        Cheilosis is the disorder involves cracking of the lips especially at the ankle of the mouth.


i.               Riboflavin deficiency

ii.               Mouth breathing

iii.               Excess salivation.

5.        Stomatitis is an inflammative condition of the mouth.


i.               Contact with irritants such tobacco

ii.               Vitamin deficiency

iii.               Infection by bacteria, virusus or fungi.

iv.               Use of Chemotherapeutic drugs

6.        Glossitis is an inflammation of the tongue resulting from an infectious disease or injury such as burn or bite.

7.        Gingivitis is a inflammation of the gums usually resulting from poor oral hygiene.

8.        Oral malignancies:- Lumps are ulcer appears in or around the mouth. The most common site is at the base of the tongue.


i.               Pipe smoking

ii.               Tobacco chewing.


A tray containing

1.        Cotton swab or clean linen pieces in a bowl.

2.        Forceps (artery and dissecting forceps).

3.        Gallicups 2 Nos. ( one for Glycerin borax another for salt solution).

4.        Feeding cup with salt solution.

5.        Kidney trays 2

6.        Swabs sticks

7.        Rubber sheet

8.        Towel

9.        Wash towel.


1.        Place all the articles conveniently on the bed side table.

2.        Explain the procedure to the patient

3.        Put the rubber sheet (Mackintosh) with towel and kidney tray under the chin.

4.        Have patient rinsed his mouth with salt solution from the feeding cup.

5.        Turn the patient’s head to one side.

6.        Take an artery forces and wrap a piece of linen around the tip of the forceps.

7.        Dip it inside the saline water and clean the teeth with up and down movements.

8.        Pay special attention to inside the mouth, gums, inside the cheeks, tongue and the roof of the mouth.

9.        Change linen pieces as often as necessary.

10.   Discard used cotton in the other kidney tray.

11.   Allow the patient to gargles as much as necessary.

12.   Dip the swap stick in glycerin borax swab gums, root and sides of the mouth.

After Care of Equipment

1.        Clean kidney trays and feeding cups with soap and water.

2.        Boil the forceps, and the galli -cups after cleaning.

3.        Place all articles in their places after cleaning and boiling.

Care of Dentures

If the patient has dentures, care should take to keep the dentures clean. If the patient is unable to do so, the nurse has to remove the dentures by grasping it with gauze pieces, place them in a tumbler or cup containing water. Dentures are washed carefully with the brush, tooth paste and cold water. Hot water should not be used hence it may injure the composition of dentures. If the patient is to do by himself, he may be assigned. Remove dentures of patients who are unconscious, mentally ill and who have vomiting or cough spasm.


Tags : Patient Hygiene , 11th Nursing : Chapter 7 : Hygiene - Patient and their Environment
Study Material, Lecturing Notes, Assignment, Reference, Wiki description explanation, brief detail
11th Nursing : Chapter 7 : Hygiene - Patient and their Environment : Oral Hygiene (Mouth Wash) | Patient Hygiene

Privacy Policy, Terms and Conditions, DMCA Policy and Compliant

Copyright © 2018-2023 BrainKart.com; All Rights Reserved. Developed by Therithal info, Chennai.