Management is the scientific art of achieving the results or goals by effective utilization of the resources. Management generally lays emphasis on control. i.e., control of personnel, control of cost, time, salaries, overtime, inventory etc. Management is required to plan, organize, co-ordinate and control the affairs of the organization. It brings the human and material resources together and motivates people for achievement of the objectives of the organization. Management is an universal process in all organized social and economic activities.
Management is an art of getting things done through and with people in formally organized groups. – Harold Koontz.
Management is defined as a process by which co-operative group directs action towards common goals.– Joseph Massie.
Nursing management consists of the performance of the leadership functions of governance and decision-making within organizations employing nurses. It includes processes common to all management like planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling.
Ward management is the duty of the head nurse, who is the administrative officer of the hospital. The nursing care is needed during admissions and discharge of patients, doctors’ rounds, and drug administration and also during operation theatre administration.
· Early arrival to duty.
· Make a note: Write down activities for the day.
· Time plan: Estimate how long it will take to accomplish a task.
· Prioritize task: There are list of tasks for the day, there is need to prioritize based on urgency.
· Follow schedule: Ignore tasks that are not on the list, to maximize best use of time.
· First thing first/Learn to say “No” with compassion: Attend to life threatening situation first.
· Take a break: Need to relax during stressful situations.
· Be flexible
· Encourage Yourself: Appreciate yourself for the achievements made so far.
· Patient care
· Personnel management
· Ward sanitation and provision of therapeutic environment
· Supply the equipment
· Interpretation of policies and procedures.
Apply the principles of administration in ward management.
1. Henri Fayol’s 14 Principles of management
• Division of work :
· Fayol has stressed on the specialization of jobs.
· Subdivision of work makes it simpler and results in efficiency.
· It also helps the individual in acquiring speed, accuracy in his performance.
2. Authority and Responsibility.
· Authority is the power to take decisions.
· Responsibility is the obligation to complete the job assigned.
· There should be balance between the two i.e. they must go hand in hand.
3. Unity of command.
· A sub-ordinate should receive orders and be accountable to one and only one boss at a time.
· In other words, a sub-ordinate should not receive instructions from more than one person.
· It creates harmonious relationship between superiors and sub-ordinates.
4. Unity of Direction
· One head one plan which means that there should be one plan for a group of activities having similar objectives.
· Related activities should be grouped together.
· According to this principle, efforts of all the members of the organization should be directed towards common goal.
· The employees should be treated with kindness and equity.
· Manager should be fair and impartial while dealing with the subordinates.
· Should give similar treatment to people of similar position.
· Should not discriminate with respect to age,caste,sex, religion,relation etc.
6. Principle of order
· It refers to the systematic arrangement of men and material in a fixed place for everything and everyone in the organization.
· The right materials and the right employees are necessary for each organizational function and activity.
• Discipline means sincerity, obedience,respect of authority and observance of rules and regulations of the enterprise.
· This applies that subordinate should respect their superiors and obey their order.
8. Principle of initiative
Workers should be encouraged to take initiative in the work assigned to them.
· Remuneration to be paid to the workers should be fair, reasonable, satisfactory and rewarding of the efforts.
· Wages should be determined on the basis of cost of living, work assigned, financial position of the business.
· Employees must be paid adequately, or give them maximum satisfaction.
10. Stability of Tenure
· Employees should not be transferred frequently or terminated.
· Time is required for an employee to get used to a new work and succeed in doing it well.
11. Scalar chain
· The chain of superiors ranging from the ultimate authority to the lowest.
· Every order, instructions, messages, requests, explanation etc. has to pass through scalar chain.
· Sub-Ordination of individual interest to general interest.
· Importance given to organization.
· Individual must sacrifice his own interests sometimes for bigger interests of organization.
· Organization is bigger than individual.
· Interest of the organization which supersedes the interest of the individuals.
13. Esprit De’Corps
· It means union is strength.
· Teamwork is fundamentally important to an organization.
· Team work inspires workers to work harder.
14. Centralization and De-centralization
· Centralization is a situation in which top management retains most of the decision making authority.
Anything which increase role of subordinates is decentralization and anything which decreases it, is centralization.
Sharing authority downwards is decentralization.
Management has been described as a social process involving responsibility for economical and effective planning and regulation of operation of an enterprise in the fulfillment of given purposes. It is a dynamic process consisting of various elements and activities.
According to George and Jerry. Four fundamental functions of management are
To manage is to forecast and plan, to organize, to command and to control.
Luther Gullick : POSDCORB
P - planning
O - Organizing
S - Staffing
D - Directing
C - Controlling / Monitoring
R - Recording and Reporting
B - Budgeting.