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Chapter: 12th Nursing : Chapter 12 : Nursing Education and Management

Curriculum planning

The systematic arrangement of certain courses designed with certain objectives for the pupil.

Curriculum planning

The term curriculum is derived from the latin word “currere” which means ‘run’. Thus, curriculum is a runway for attaining the goals of education. Curriculum may be considered as the blue print of an educational programme. It is the base of education on which the teaching-learning process is planned and implemented.


Meaning of curriculum

The systematic arrangement of certain courses designed with certain objectives for the pupil.

Curriculum refers to the totality of activity and experiences planned by the school with a view to achieve the objectives of education.



According to Cunningham,’ Curriculum is a tool in the hands of an artist to mould his material, according to his ideals in his studio. In this definition, artist is the teacher, material is the student, ideals are the objectives and studio is the educational institute.

Nursing curriculum is the learning opportunities (subject matter) and the learning activities (clinical experiences and practices) that the faculty plans and implement in various settings for particular group of students, for a specified period of time in order to attain the objectives.


Three facets of curriculum are

·  Goals and purposes of education

·  Process of curriculum

·  Evaluation of products


The four C’ s of curriculum planning

Cooperative: A programme prepared jointly by group of persons.

Continuous: Preparation of programme and its revision should be continuous.

Comprehensive: All the components of the programme should be included.

Concrete: Concrete professional tasks must constitute the essential structure of a relevant programme.


Components of curriculum

·  Philosophy

·  Objectives

·  Total duration

·  Detailed course plan

·  Programme evaluation.

·  The statement of philosophy of the educational programme.

·  The statement of the objectives of educational programme.

·  Total duration of the educational programme. (theortical ,practical ,clinical components.)

·  Detailed course plan for each course. (placement, sequences and learning situations, instructional methods)

·  Programme evaluation (evaluation methods, plan and schedule of evaluation, results of evaluation).


1.  Levels of curriculum planning

Goodland names curriculum in 3 levels.

·  Societal

·  Institutional

·  Instructional


Societal curriculum

This curriculum which is planned for a large group or class of students, e.g BSc(N) It is planned by groups outside of an educational institution, e.g. National league for nursing. They are more immediately concerned with

There is significant relationship between curriculum and nature of society. According to the needs of the society curriculum will be changed.


The institutional curriculum

·  It is planned by faculty or teacher for a clearly identified group of students who will spend a specified period in a particular institution.

·  Cooperative planning through curriculum committee of the particular institution.

·  More active participation of each teachers generally brings about change and improvement.


The instructional curriculum

It consists of the content (subject matter and learning activities) planned day by day and week by week by a particular teacher for a particular group of students.


2. Curriculum committee

The committee comprises the following members


3. Grading of curriculum content

E- Essential or must learn.

D- Desirble or useful to learn.

S- Supportive or nice to learn.


4. Principles of curriculum development

The conservative principles: this means that the present, the past, and the future needs of the community should be taken into considerations.

The forward- looking principles: Children of today are the citizens of tomorrow.

The creative principle: Curriculum should enable the child to exercise his creative and constructive powers.

Principle of totality form: The curriculum should be total learning experience and total learning opportunity.

The activity principles: The curriculum should be developed in terms of activity and experience.

Principle of preparation of life: Enable the child to fulfil his responsibilities when he becomes an adult.

Principle of connecting to life:

Curriculum should provide worthwhile life experiences.

Child centered curriculum: Consideration should be given to the student’s age, their educational level, needs and individual differences.

Priniciple of integration and correlation: While developing curriculum, each year’s course should be built on what has been done in previous years and at the same time should serve as basis for subsequent learning.

Priniciple of comprehensiveness and balance. The curriculum should be framed in such a way as every aspect of life, like economic relationships, social activities and occupations.

Principle of loyalties: Curriculum should be planned in such a manner that it teaches a true sense of loyalty to the family, the school, the country and the international community at large

Priniciple of variety and flexibility: Variety should be provided in terms of learning and teaching activities. Its not so rigid.

Priniciple of connecting to community needs: Curriculum should address the community needs.

Principle of connecting with social life:

Curriculum has to maintain to relation with social life.

Training for leisure: The curriculum should have some provision for the co-curricular activities, relaxation, and library utilization according to choice.

Principle of core or common subjects: Broad areas of knowledge, skills and appreciation should be included. Co subjects, like maths, science etc.

Principle of all round development of body, mind and spirit: All kinds of experiences should be provided.

Prinicples of dignity of labour: Curriculum should help students to develop a positive attitude towards all kinds of jobs.

Principle of character building: Curriculum should promote human and social values.

Principle of democracy, secularism and socialism: Curriculum should train the child to imbibe ideals and values of a democratic, secular and socialist state. Principle of connecting with social life: curriculum has to maintain a relations with social life.

Types of curiculum

·  Legitimate curriculum

·  Illegitimate curriculum

·  Hidden curriculum

·  Null curriculum


Principles related to the Development of Nursing curriculum

·  Nursing curriculum should equip the students with the essential knowledge, skills and attitude.

·  Curriculum should be clear to the students as well as to the teacher.

·  Consider the community needs.

·  Curriculum should inculcate right attitude to students.

·  Frame adequate teaching – learning activities in the classroom, clinical area and community settings.

·  Consider the guidelines laid down by the statutory bodies line INC, Universities, examination boards .

·  High-Tech-High-Touch approach in the nursing care.

·  Participatory approach in the teaching-learning process.

·  The learning environment should resemble the life situation.


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