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Chapter: 11th Political Science : Democracy

Modern and Contemporary Democracy

Written constitution the basic requirements and it must be kept up in everyday life by politicians and authorities.

Modern and Contemporary Democracy:

Modern and contemporary democracies emerged in the late eighteen centuries in Western Europe as a result of industrial revolution, rise of labour and the social changes that emerged. Modern and contemporary democracies feature:

 

·              Written constitution the basic requirements and it must be kept up in everyday life by politicians and authorities:

 

·              Importance of Constitutionally guaranteed basic Human Rights and fundamental rights to every individual of all the social groups’ especially religious minorities and other underprivileged.

 

·              The Separation of Powers between the institutions of the state:

 

·              Government (Executive Power), Parliament (Legislative Power) and Courts of Law (Judicative Power)

 

·              Freedom of opinion, speech, press and mass media

 

·              Religious liberty

 

·              General and equal right to vote (one person, one vote) – Universal Adult Suffrage

 

The “majority rule” is characterized as only important features of democracy, however the process should have free and fair competitive elections. Additionally, the importance of Rights is very important viz: freedom of political expression, freedom of speech, and freedom of the press are indispensable in the representative democracy and the masses are informed through political campaign and the manifestoes of the political parties enable to vote in their personal interests.

 

Democracies have been practiced by different models of political system ranging from one party rule to multi-party system. In several countries, democracy is based on the legal principle of equal rights to vote. People in Asian and European countries use the term “democracy” as the basic expression meaning for liberal democracy, which has the salient features of political pluralism; equality before the law; civil liberties; human rights; and elements of civil society outside the government. Freedom of speech is the fundamental requirement of modern democracy.

 

All democratically elected Governments are held responsible by free speech, every decision must have a reason, accountable. The free flow of information allows both people and governments to make the best informed decisions. Democracy has been described or defined broadly as



·              Political System of Competition for Power

·              Right to participation in public life

·              The Rule of Law

 

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