Introduction to Metrology
Metrology word is derived from two Greek words such as metro which means measurement and logy which means science. Metrology is the science of precision measurement. The engineer can say it is the science of measurement of lengths and angles and all related quantities like width, depth, diameter and straightness with high accuracy. Metrology demands pure knowledge of certain basic mathematical and physical principles. The development of the industry largely depends on the engineering metrology. Metrology is concerned with the establishment, reproduction and conservation and transfer of units of measurements and their standards. Irrespective of the branch of engineering, all engineers should know about various instruments and techniques.
Introduction to Measurement
Measurement is defined as the process of numerical evaluation of a dimension or the process of comparison with standard measuring instruments. The elements of measuring system include the instrumentation, calibration standards, environmental influence, human operator limitations and features of the work-piece. The basic aim of measurement in industries is to check whether a component has been manufactured to the requirement of a specification or not.
Types of Metrology
· Legal Metrology
'Legal metrology' is that part of metrology which treats units of measurements, methods of measurements and the measuring instruments, in relation to the technical and legal requirements. The activities of the service of 'Legal Metrology' are:
(i) Control of measuring instruments;
(ii) Testing of prototypes/models of measuring instruments;
(iii) Examination of a measuring instrument to verify its conformity to the statutory requirements etc.
· Dynamic Metrology
'Dynamic metrology' is the technique of measuring small variations of a continuous nature. The technique has proved very valuable, and a record of continuous measurement, over a surface, for instance, has obvious advantages over individual measurements of an isolated character.
· Deterministic metrology
Deterministic metrology is a new philosophy in which part measurement is replaced by process measurement. The new techniques such as 3D error compensation by CNC (Computer Numerical Control) systems and expert systems are applied, leading to fully adaptive control. This technology is used for very high precision manufacturing machinery and control systems to achieve micro technology and nanotechnology accuracies.