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ELECTRO PHYSIOLOGY AND BIO POTENTIAL RECORDING
1. What is meant by cell?
The basic living unit of the body is cell. The function of organs and other Structure of the body is understood by cell organization.
2. Give the abbreviation form for RNA, DNA?
RNA –Ribo Nucleic Acid DNA—De- Oxy Nucleic Acid
3. What are resting and action potential, bio electric potential?
The membrane potential caused by the different concentration of ions is calledresting potential. It is caused by very rapid change of membrane Permeability to sodium ions followed by recovery period.The positive potential of the cell membrane during excitation is called action potential. Certain systems of the body generate their own monitoring signals conveying useful information about the functions they represent. Such signals are bio electric potentials and are related to nerve conduction, brain activity, heart beat etc.
4.What is meant by measurement.
Measurement is an act or the result of comparison between the quantity and a predefined standard.
5. Mention the basic requirements of measurement.
The standard used for comparison purpose must be accurately defined and should be commonly accepted. The apparatus used and the method adopted must be provable.
6. What are the 2 methods for measurement?
2. Indirect method.
7. Explain the function of measurement system.
The measurement system consists of a transuding element which converts the quantity to be measured in an analogous form the analogous signal is then processed by some intermediate means and is then fed to the end device which presents the results of the measurement.
8. Define Instrument.
Instrument is defined as a device for determining the value or magnitude of a quantity or variable.
9. List the types of instruments?
The 3 types of instruments are
1) Mechanical Instruments
2) Electrical Instruments and
3) Electronic Instruments.
10. Classify instruments.
11.What is meant by Resting Potential?
Equilibrium is reached with a potential difference across the membrane such that negative on inside and positive on outside. This membrane potential caused by the different concentration of irons is called Resting Potential.
12.What is meant by Action Potential?
Cell has a slightly positive potential on the inside due to imbalance of potassium ions. This positive potential of the cell membrane during excitation is called Action Potential and is about 20 mV.
13.Give any 4 factors to be considered when we design any medical Instrument?
Accuracy, Frequency Response, Linearity, S/N ratio, Stability,
14.What is Electrode Potential?
The voltage developed at an electrode-electrolyte interface is known as Electrode Potential.
15.What is the purpose of electrode paste?
The electrode paste decreases the impedance of the contact the artifacts resulting from the movement of the electrode or patient.
16.Give the different types of electrodes?
Depth and needle electrodes,
17.Give the different types of Surface electrodes?
1) Metal Plate electrodes
2) Suction cup electrodes
3) Adhesive tape electrodes
4) Multi point electrodes
5) Floating electrodes.
18. What is PH electrode?
The chemical balance of human body is identified by measurement of Ph content of blood and other body fluids. PH is defined as logarithm of reciprocal of hydrogen ion concentration.
19. Define polarized and non polarized electrode.
Electrodes in which no net transfer of charge occurs across the metal electrolyte interface is called as perfectly polarized electrodes.Electrodes in which un hindered exchange of charge occurs across the metal electrode interface is called perfectly non polaraisable electrodes.
20. What is plethysmograph?
The instrument used for measuring blood volume is called plethysmograph.
Half Cell Potential - A characteristic potential difference established by the electrode and its surrounding electrolyte which depends on the metal, concentration of ions in solution and temperature.
Polarization - If there is a current between the electrode and electrolyte, the observed half cell potential is often altered due to polarization.
Biopotential amplifiers - Biopotential amplifiers are required to increase signal strength while maintaining fidelity
Electrocardiograph - A very widely used medical instrument, which is utilized to diagnose and monitor cardiac beat abnormalities, is the electrocardiograph
Myocardium - The walls of the heart are composed of cardiac muscle, called myocardium.
EEG - EEG is the recorded representation of bioelectric potentials generated by the neuronal activity of the brain.
Grand mal epilepsy – Sudden loss of consciousness, falling down, tonic contractions (stiffening of muscles) followed by twitching and jerking movements of the limbs
Surface electrodes- Usually this electrode is used for EMG. But by using this electrode, it is not possible to take the deeper potential.
Needle electrodes – These are inserted into tissue or closer to tissue to measure the electrical activity of muscle.
EMG - It is an instrument used for recording the electrical activity of the muscles to determine whether the muscle is contracting or not.
EOG - It is the recording of the biopotentials generated by the movement of eyes
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