Identifying computers and users over a network
• A domain name is a unique name that identifies a website. Each website has a domain name that serves as an address, which is used to access the website. For example, "google. com" is a domain name.
• Whenever you visit a website, the domain name appears in the address bar of the web browser. Some domain names are preceded by "www" (which is not part of the domain name), while others omit the "www" prefix.
• All domain names have a domain suffix, such as .com, .net, or .org. The domain suffix helps identify the type of website the domain name represents. There are only a limited number of such domains. For example:
gov - Government agencies
edu - Educational institutions
org - Organizations (nonprofit)
mil - Military
com - commercial business
net - Network organizations
ca - Canada
th - Thailand
Domain names are relatively cheap to register, though they must be renewed every year or every few years. Anyone can register a domain name, so you can purchase a unique domain name for your blog or website.
• MAC stands for "Media Access Control".
• A MAC address is a hardware identification number that uniquely identifies each device on a network.
• MAC addresses are made up of six two-digit hexadecimal numbers, separated by colons. For example, an Ethernet card may have a MAC address of 00:0d:83:b1:c0:8e. Fortunately, you do not need to know this address, since it is automatically recognized by most networks.
• IP stands for "Internet Protocol." An IP address, is a unique address that identifies a device on the Internet or a local network.
• It allows a system to be recognized by other systems connected by the Internet protocol. There are two primary types of IP address formats used today — IPv4 and IPv6.
• IPv4, the most common form of addresses, are written as four sets of numbers, each set having up to three digits, with each set separated by a dot. For example, "18.104.22.168" could be a valid IPv4 IP address. With DNS, we map a name to that address so that you do not have to remember a complicated set of numbers for each place you wish to visit on a network.