HEALTH PROGRAMMES RELATED TO CHILDREN
· Maternal and child health programme (MCH)
· Weekly iron and folic acid supplementation (WIFS) Programme
· National Deworming day
· Universal Immunization Programme
· Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram (RBSK)
· Pulse Polio Immunization (PPI)
· Intensified efforts to reduce child deaths due to diarrhoea
· The Reproductive and Child health Programme (RCH)
· Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS)
· Balwadi Nutrition Programme
· Mid-day meal programme
· Pallisirar Kannoli Kappom Thittam
Since India became independent several measures have been undertaken by the Government to improve the health of the people. A brief account of these programmes which are currently in operation and related to child health are discussed below.
The term maternal and child health refers to the promotive, preventive, curative and rehabilitative health care for mothers and children. The main objective is reduction of maternal, perinatal infant and childhood mortality and morbidity.
Iron and folic acid supplementation of 100mg iron and 500mg folic acid to reduce the prevalence and severity of anaemia in school going adolescent girls and boys in 6th-12th government / government aided / municipal schools.
National deworming day is a single fixed day approach to treating intestinal worm infection in all children aged 1-19 years and is held on 10th February and 10th August each year.
Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) is a Vaccination Program launched by the Government of India in 1985. It became a part of child survival and safe motherhood programme in 1992. The aim of this programme is to give vaccination for 12 diseases. The twelve diseases are Tuberculosis, Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Poliomyelitis, Measles, Hepatitis B, Diarrhoea, Japanese Encephalitis, Rubella, Pneumonia and Pneumococcal diseases.
It is a new initiative aiming at early identification and early intervention for, children from birth to 18 years to cover ‘4D’s
· Defects at birth
· Delayed developments / Disability
This programme was launched in India in 1995. Children in the age group of 0-5 years administered Polio drops during national and sub national immunization rounds.
The main aim is to reduce child deaths due to diarrhoea. All the deaths due to diarrhoea can be prevented by treating dehydration, with the use of ORS (Oral Rehydration Solution) and administration of zinc tablets along with adequate nutritional intake by the child. ASHA worker would undertake the distribution of ORS packets to households with the supervision of safe drinking water, breast feeding, sanitation, nutrition and hand washing. (ASHA – Accredited Social Health Activist)
This programme was launched in October 1997. The main aim of the programme is to reduce infant, child and maternal mortality rates and to reduce total fertility rate.
The package include
Prevention and management of unwanted pregnancy.
Provision of services to promote child survival.
Prevention and treatment of reproductive tractt infection and diseases.
It was initiated by the Government of India in the Ministry of social and women’s welfare in 1975. Which provides food, preschool education and primary health care to children under 6 years of age and their mothers.
This programme was started in the year 1970 under the Ministry of Social Welfare. The aim is to provide primary education to 3-6 years children. The food supplement provides 300Kcal and 10gms of protein per children.
Mid-day meal programme is also known school lunch programme to noon meal programme.
This Programme has been in operation since 1961 throughout the country under Ministry of Education. The object is to attract more children for admission to schools and return them so that literacy improvements of children could be brought about.
· The meal should be a supplement and not a substitute to the home diet.
· The cost of the meal should be reasonably low.
· The menu should be frequently changed to avoid monotonous.
Refractive errors (need for glasses) are the second main cause for avoidable blind and the rate of optometrists in reducing this condition significantly. It involved many screening activities including cataract and diabetic retinopathy. School children vision screening occupies the major.
Group Activity: Screen the school
children for refractive errors. Refer affected children to the
Government Hospital and encourage them to wear spectacles.