Location: The exact position of an object or place stated in
spatial coordinates of a grid system designed for the location purposes. In
geography, the reference system is the global grid of parallels of latitudes
north or south of equator and of meridians of longitude east or west of the
The art, science and technology of making maps.
Field Measurement Book (F.M.B): The FMB depicts the
dimensions of each field boundaries and the sub divisions. In FMB the
individual survey number maps are maintained at a scale of 1:1000 or 1:2000.
Each survey number is divided into several sub divisions. Each sub division is
owned by a owner. The FMB’s also depicts the dimensions of each field boundaries
and the sub divisions.
Effect: The heating of the earth’s
surface as shortwave solar energy passes through the atmosphere, which is transparent to it but opaque to reradiated
long wave terrestrial energy. It also refers to increasing the opacity of the
atmosphere through the addition of increased amounts of carbon dioxide, nitrous
oxide, methane and chlorofluorocarbons.
Mean Time (GMT): Local time at the prime meridian (Zero
degree longitude), which passes through the observatory at Greenwich, England.
Projection: A method by which the curved surface of the Earth is
shown on a flat surface map. As it is not possible to show all the Earth’s
features accurately on a flat surface, some projections aim to show direction
accurately at the expense of area, some the shape of the land and oceans, while
others show correct area at the expense of accurate shape.
One of the projections most commonly used is the
Mercator projection, devised in 1569, in which all lines of latitude are the
same length as the equator. This results in increased distortion of area,
moving from the equator towards the poles. This projection is suitable for
The Mollweide projection shows the land masses the
correct size in relation to each other but there is distortion of shape. As the
Mollweide projection has no area distortion it is useful for showing
distributions such as population distribution. The only true representation of
the Earth’s surface is a globe.
A culturally distinctive group of people occupying a particular
region and bond together by a sense of unity arising from shared ethnicity,
beliefs and customs.
physically occurring item that a
population perceives to the necessary and useful to its maintenance and
Layer: A gas
molecule consisting of three atoms
of oxygen (O3) formed when diatomic oxygen (O2) is
exposed to ultraviolet radiation. In the lower atmosphere, it constitutes a
damaging component of photochemical smog; in the upper atmosphere, it forms a
normally continuous, thin layer that blocks ultraviolet light. A layer of ozone
in the atmosphere (stratosphere) protects life on earth by absorbing
ultraviolet radiation from the sun.
Meridian: An imaginary line passing through the Royal Observatory
at Greenwich, England, serving by agreement as the zero degree line of
In geography, the term applied to an area of the earth that displays
a distinctive grouping of physical or cultural phenomena or is functionally
united as a single organisational unit.
Location: The position of a place in relation to a well-known place.
Site: The place where something is located; the immediate surroundings and their attributes.
The location of something in relation to physical and human
characteristics of a larger region.
A place name with reference to topography.