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Chapter: 11th Geography : Chapter 1 : Fundamentals of Geography

Glossary for Fundamentals of Geography

Geography : Fundamentals of Geography

Absolute Location: The exact position of an object or place stated in spatial coordinates of a grid system designed for the location purposes. In geography, the reference system is the global grid of parallels of latitudes north or south of equator and of meridians of longitude east or west of the Prime meridian.

Cartography: The art, science and technology of making maps.

Field Measurement Book (F.M.B): The FMB depicts the dimensions of each field boundaries and the sub divisions. In FMB the individual survey number maps are maintained at a scale of 1:1000 or 1:2000. Each survey number is divided into several sub divisions. Each sub division is owned by a owner. The FMB’s also depicts the dimensions of each field boundaries and the sub divisions.

Greenhouse Effect: The heating of the earth’s surface as shortwave solar energy passes through the atmosphere, which is  transparent to it but opaque to reradiated long wave terrestrial energy. It also refers to increasing the opacity of the atmosphere through the addition of increased amounts of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane and chlorofluorocarbons.

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT): Local time at the prime meridian (Zero degree longitude), which passes through the observatory at Greenwich, England.

Map Projection: A method by which the curved surface of the Earth is shown on a flat surface map. As it is not possible to show all the Earth’s features accurately on a flat surface, some projections aim to show direction accurately at the expense of area, some the shape of the land and oceans, while others show correct area at the expense of accurate shape.

One of the projections most commonly used is the Mercator projection, devised in 1569, in which all lines of latitude are the same length as the equator. This results in increased distortion of area, moving from the equator towards the poles. This projection is suitable for navigation charts.

The Mollweide projection shows the land masses the correct size in relation to each other but there is distortion of shape. As the Mollweide projection has no area distortion it is useful for showing distributions such as population distribution. The only true representation of the Earth’s surface is a globe.

Nation: A culturally distinctive group of people occupying a particular region and bond together by a sense of unity arising from shared ethnicity, beliefs and customs.

Natural Resource: A physically occurring item that a population perceives to the necessary and useful to its maintenance and well-being.

Ozone Layer: A gas molecule consisting of three atoms of oxygen (O3) formed when diatomic oxygen (O2) is exposed to ultraviolet radiation. In the lower atmosphere, it constitutes a damaging component of photochemical smog; in the upper atmosphere, it forms a normally continuous, thin layer that blocks ultraviolet light. A layer of ozone in the atmosphere (stratosphere) protects life on earth by absorbing ultraviolet radiation from the sun.

Prime Meridian: An imaginary line passing through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England, serving by agreement as the zero degree line of longitude.

Region: In geography, the term applied to an area of the earth that displays a distinctive grouping of physical or cultural phenomena or is functionally united as a single organisational unit.

Relative Location: The position of a place in relation to a well-known place.

Site: The place where something is located; the immediate surroundings and their attributes.

Situation: The location of something in relation to physical and human characteristics of a larger region.

Toponym: A place name with reference to topography.

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